SASE 2012

For 2012 info please download the file below.

 

information

 

ABSTRACTS

 

WORKPLACE-BASED LEARNING IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SCALE ENTERPRISES AND INFORMAL BUSINESS SECTOR

 

 

Nduduzo Phuthi nduduzo.phuthi@nust.ac.zw

Department of Technical Teacher Education, Faculty of Industrial Technology, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

 

Pieter Du Toit (PhD) pieter.dutoit@up.ac.za

Department of Humanities Education, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South Africa

 

Mabhena Mpofu (PhD)mabhena.mpofu@nust.ac.zw

Department of Technical Teacher Education, Faculty of Industrial Technology, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

 

ABSTRACT

Because of entrenched historical, knowledge and cultural considerations, universities in developing countries tend to associate with the knowledge-rich, large-scale, formal and well-established local organisations in their communities for mutually beneficial engagement. On the other hand, they seek out disadvantaged and marginalised sections of the community for charitable and philanthropic engagements. Consequently, many of the more proximal, middle-of-the road and knowledge-starved sections of society, among them the small and medium-scale enterprise (SME) sector, have generally been left out of active and sustained interaction with these institutions of higher learning and knowledge generation.

 

This paper, drawing from a study on university work-based learning, addresses the challenges of attaching students to small-and medium-scale enterprises and informal businesses. Qualitative questionnaire and interview data from students, lecturers and industry supervisors showed that although there was support for universities to engage with SMEs and informal businesses, academic pressures, logistical and administrative challenges limited the scope and sustainability of such an engagement. For example, although student attachments were an opportunity for knowledge, skills and technology transfer to the SMEs, they did not provide the desired learning environment for crucial learning experiences for all study disciplines, particularly engineering and technical fields of study.

 

The low educational background of many African entrepreneurs in the SME sector limits their ability to fully assess their own needs, to accurately define their problems, and to be aware of the business opportunities in their sector. Available economic opportunities must therefore be researched and the results made available to them from time to time (Ayiku, 1991). Since SMEs in Africa are generally ill-positioned to commit big funds for elaborate product development, universities and research institutions must undertake this function in the national interest. Ideally, university, industry and government (the triple-helix) collaboration must be harnessed to  new responsibilities through sympathetic dialogue (Parra-Sandoval et al., 2010) to make universities ‘business friendly’, and small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) ‘university-aware’ (Ryan (2006). In essence a deliberate programme of empowerment of SMEs may become part of the mission of a university that prides itself in relevant community engagement to uplift its neighbours.

 

 

 

Author: Dr. Jephias Andrew Dzimbanhete

 (Lecturer at Great Zimbabwe University-Department of History and Development Studies)

E-mail address:  j.adzimbanhete@yahoo.com

 

Title: ‘I died for this country’: National Heritage and Zimbabwe’s War of Liberation

Abstract

What legacies make the Zimbabwean war of independence a national heritage? The significance of posing this question cannot be overemphasised. There is an explosion of current and dominant narratives of the war whose sentiment is that the people who died during and because of the liberation struggle made sacrifices that bequeathed national heritage status to Zimbabwe’s war of liberation. The same perspective stresses that sacrifices were a monopoly of the people who ‘jumped the borders’ out of colonial Rhodesia during the war years. The same body of narratives attaches prominence to the inaccurate but deliberate definition of  the terms, ‘deserters and sell outs’ in the process of appropriating the Zimbabwean armed independence struggle for particular groups of people. This paper seeks to show that the co-operation and unity between the armed liberation fighters and the povho (the black civilian population in the war zones) during the period of the war constitutes an impressive legacy of Zimbabwe’s war of liberation. The cordial relationship, a product of a shared political goal, manifested in the collaboration between the freedom fighters and their hosts, confers national heritage status to the war. This study revisits this aspect of Zimbabwe’s liberation war and examines the contribution of various categories of the African population. The paper thus challenges perspectives that privilege a single category of the participants of the war and also overemphasise death as the only notable sacrifice made during the decolonisation process of Zimbabwe. Furthermore, the article demonstrates that sacrifices during the armed struggle were not a monopoly of any one group.

 

Key words

Zimbabwe’s war of liberation, heritage, collaboration, political unanimity, deserters, sell outs, povho, mujibha, chimbwido, guerrilla fighters, Rhodesian security forces.

 

 

Dr Alfred Masinire & Miss Thabisile Nkambule

University of the Witswatersrand,

Johannesburg, Gauteng, SA

Wits School of Education-Curriculum Division

Email: Alfred.Masinire@wits.ac.za

Email: Thabisile.Nkambule@wits.ac.za

 

Topic: Preparing Rural Teachers: Some Initial Thoughts Directing a Proposed Rural Teaching Experience/Teaching Practice in a Pre-service Bachelor of Education Program. 

 

Abstract

Internationally, remote rural schools are impacted heavily by the problem of the shortage of qualified teachers in comparison to urban schools. Most rural schools continue to face the challenge of recruiting and retaining qualified educators. Often, Ministerial National and Regional Departments of Education have been left to address the problem of qualified rural teacher shortage, through such programs as monetary incentives in the form of housing and transport allowances and in-service staff development workshops.  In this paper we attempt to re-focus the rural teacher recruitment and retention problem by suggesting a rethinking of the current teacher education program, particularly the Teaching Experience component (TE) [in some institutions referred to as Teaching Practice (TP)].  We present a theoretical position that is largely informed by International Rural Education literature and Practice but also that is designed to inform a proposed Rural Teaching Experience component of a Bed program at a university where we teach.  The following key assumptions underline our argument:

  • Description of rural teacher recruitment and retention problem.
  • In-service and incentives for rural teachers should be supplemented by an initial rigorous pre-service Rural TE/TP.
  • Current TE/TP programs in relation to rural teachers’ professional and social problems and needs.
  • A rationale for a distinctive rural based TE/TP program for prospective rural teachers.
  • A proposed Rural TE/TA program that attends to recruitment and retention of rural teachers.
  • An envisioned distinct pedagogy for rural teachers that takes into account classroom, school and community based skills.

The transformative potential and quality of an education cannot exceed the quality of its teachers. The social, political and educational imperative to sustain rural schools is compelling. Yet, the horizon of accessing and delivering quality and sustainable rural education that can transform rural schools and communities seems elusive. How can this goal be achieved without the adequate qualified rural teachers? This paper re-conceptualizes the rural teacher recruitment and retention problem within the context of a proposed Pre-service Teacher Education TE/TP program based on International Western Rural Education research and practice.

 

 

Indigenous knowledge language systems as source of educational psychology principles for teaching and learning: A case of traditional African cultures of Zimbabwe.

 

Chadamoyo Patrick: Student advisor. Zimbabwe Open University.          email:pchadamoyo@gmail.com. Cell 00263712766019

Dumbu Emmanuel: Lecturer in Commerce and Law. Zimbabwe Open University. Email: dumbuworks@gmail.com. Cell 00263772920872

 

Abstract

The study explores how the traditional African cultures of Zimbabwe have used their indigenous knowledge of tsumo (proverbs) for teaching their children cultural norms and values. The study argues that if educational psychology is about what goes on in teaching and learning, then the ways the traditional African elders have used proverbs (tsumo) to successfully teach children about ways of behaving, are based on educational psychology principles. The study adopted the qualitative field- based approach whereby the Karanga language speaking people of Masvingo province of Zimbabwe were interrogated on how the statements of proverbs (tsumo) entrenched in their language, are used to teach children ways of understanding the world. The study also used documentary evidence of selected statements of proverbs (tsumo) to illustrate the relationship between the potential effect of these proverbs (tsumo) on changing human behaviour and that of the principles of educational psychology. Results have indicated that the scientific methods that culminated in the pronouncement of the general statements of educational psychology theories and principles were and are still the same methods that elders of the indigenous African societies used and still use today to formulate general statements of truths called proverbs (tsumo).

 

Key words:   traditional African cultures; indigenous knowledge; proverbs (tsumo); educational psychology; scientific knowledge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Experiences of teaching in multi-grade classes: a case of four farm/rural schools in KwaZulu-Natal Midlands

 

Mthiyane, NP:mthiyanen1@ukzn.ac.za

University of KwaZulu-Natal : Faculty of Education

 

Background:In the South African (SA) Constitution of 1996, the rights of children are recognised and clearly spelt outin theBill of Rights, that: “…. everyonehas a right to a basic education…” Despite the transformational changes in the education system multi-grade classes still persist in the South African school communities. Multi-grade classes are not deliberate recognised structures inthe SA education system,butareviewed as a forceful reality based on political, economical and geographicalsettings that necessitate combining of classes for equal access to education.For the improvement and provision ofquality education,effective teaching and learning, skilled teachers that are able to make connections among their profession in their contexts, their teaching practices, and the learning of their learners for sustainable developmentare required (Lieberman & Miller, 2008).

Objectives:This study is work in progress focusing on the experiences of teachers and schools managers teaching multi-grade classes in rural or farm schools in the GETband.In South Africa, most practising teachers received the pedagogy or training that focusedmainly on teaching strategies for mono-grade classes.Acknowledging that effective school and curriculum management is important for qualityteaching and learning,the purpose of this study is to explore the experiences of multi-grade teachers; to understand and observe how they manage their classes and schoolsand how they navigate challenges they are faced with for effective teaching and learningin these contexts.

Method:This qualitative study is located within the interpretive paradigm and utilises a case study approach. A purposive sample of four schools, two teachers in the Foundation Phase and also two in the Intermediate Phase in uMgungundlovu district, in the KwaZulu – Natal Midlands was selected. In each school the principal and one teacher will participate. Data were collected using recorded semi-structured interviews, reflective journals and audio-taped observation. Ethical issues will be adhered to. Data analysis will be analysed using Giorgi, Fisher and Murray’s (1975) phenomenological steps.

Findings and Conclusion:Preliminary findings revealed the following: need for on-going specialised multi-grade teacher training, development of management skills, development of an active learning environment. It also recommends restructured curriculum or policies and innovative teaching programmes.

Key words: multi-grade classrooms; rural/farm schools; effective teaching and learning.

 

 

 

Assessment challenges in the Zimbabwe: A case of Gweru Urban Schools

 

Assessment of student learning plays an important role to the teaching and learning situation. It provides a basis for decision making as well as measuring educational progress. Unfortunately, assessment in the primary schools presents a number of problems. These problems were observed by teachers, head teachers, college lecturers, educational officers and ZIMSEC officers. The researcher’s teaching experience triggered the need for this research after realizing that teachers had a casual approach to assessment. Some teachers would set tests that would only address one level of the taxonomy of objectives while others would duplicate items from past examination papers. It was also observed that some test items were poorly structured and that assessment procedures lacked variety. Research was carried out in other countries, but it was worthwhile to substantiate the results and discover more causes particularly in the Zimbabwean context. This study therefore sought to find out the causes to these problems. The study was carried out in primary schools in Gweru urban. A qualitative naturalistic single case study was employed to allow the researcher to understand the participants’ word view as much as possible on assessment problems. The informants who participated in this research were purposefully selected in order to allow them to provide information needed to answer the research questions raised. The instruments used to collect data were individual interviews, focus group interviews and document analysis. Analysis of the research findings was based on the participants’ own experience and explanations on assessment problems. The findings that emanated from this research revealed that assessment in the primary schools is bedeviled by a number of problems which include among others; lack of teacher competencies or skills to carry out assessment, teachers’ use of summative assessment more than formative assessment, as well as the shortage of resources or lack thereof. It also emerged from the study that a high teacher pupil ratio, absenteeism and low teacher morale, all contributed to assessment problems in the primary schools. From these findings, the major recommendation was that the teacher college curriculum should expose teachers to a variety of assessment skills. Furthermore, the Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture needs to regularly provide staff development on assessment for teachers already in the field.

 

Mrs. M. Kurebwa: Lecturer

Zimbabwe Open University

P.O. Box 1810

Gweru

Zimbabwe

 

Mobile             :           +263 772 668 510

Business          :           +263 54 226002/3

Fax                  :           263 54 226004

mkurebwa@yahoo.com

An investigation of operational risk management systems used in manufacturing Small and Medium Enterprises in Masvingo urban (2009-2012).

ledwin chimwai <lchimwai@gmail.com>

 

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have been labelled as engines for economic growth the world over. In Zimbabwe however SME development has been hampered by a number of identified causes. Amongst them Mudavanhu et al (2011), Chidoko et al(2011) and Zindiye (2011), in their researches, identified some of the challenges as lack of skills in human resources, poor managerial skills, lack of capital, poor accounting systems, unavailability of credit, import competition, high cost of raw materials. The SMEs have thus failed to satisfy the engine for growth function as was expected by most economists. The current study aimed at finding out if SMEs are doing something about mitigating against the causes of failure and suggest ways that they can adopt to contribute to sustainable development. The descriptive survey design was used to describe the risk management systems in place. The study found out that internal controls such as security guards, generators in place of electric systems and in rare cases insurance are the risk management systems that SMEs rely on mostly. The study recommended entrepreneurial skills education as a pre-requisite for good and improved performance in SMEs. Owners/managers should communicate business objectives to all the employees through training and development, so that they own the objectives and ensure that there is continuity in the operations of the business resulting in minimal or zero losses and sustainable development.

KEY WORDS: Entrepreneurship skills, SMEs, operational risk management, training and development, sustainable development.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An EXPLORATION OF ACTIVE LEARNING APPROACHES IN ECONOMICS EDUCATION IN SELECTED MANGAUNG SCHOOLS

* Mgcinazwe Zwane

School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities

Central University of Technology, Free State

E-mail: mzwane@cut.ac.za

 Abstract

Traditionally Economics Education teaching has been ‘formal’ teacher centered subject in schools with: heavy reliance being placed on the textbook that preordains the approach to the subject; the teacher is more dominant in class and the learners simply record the information and learners are passive in the teaching and learning process. Essentially, therefore a predominantly passive approach to the teaching of Economics has been developed in the classroom. The teacher centered approach leads to rote learning, which makes it difficult to attain the objectives of teaching Economics.  With the introduction of outcomes based education (OBE) the new political dispensation in South Africa has legislated that participative learning should become a reality in the classroom. Teachers in South African education system are expected to educate learners towards the attainment of seven critical outcomes and five development outcomes. This challenges the teacher to make participative learning a reality.

Key words: teaching, schools, economic education, active learning, learners, teacher, South Africa

* Address all correspondence to: Mr. Mgcinazwe Zwane

School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539

Bloemfontein 9300

South Africa

E-mail: mzwane@cut.ac.za

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modern Teacher Education and the Question of Paradigms

 

Contributors:

 

            Mr BT Gamede

            University of Zululand

Private Bag X 1001

KwaDlangezwa

3886

e-mail:  bgamede@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

Mr HZM Jamile

            University of Zululand

Private Bag X 1001

KwaDlangezwa

3886

            e-mail:  hjamile@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

Mr BB Ndlovu

            University of Zululand

Private Bag X 1001

KwaDlangezwa

3886

            e-mail:  bndlovu@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

The purpose of this discourse is to engage educationists and educationalists on issues of preparing student-teachers for future engagements as practitioners of the teaching profession.  This is a matter of determining the nature and composition of teacher education curricula.

 

Education is a social science and as such it seeks to address human needs as are determined by circumstances which change with the passage of time.  In order to remain relevant, therefore, education needs to adapt.  It is the nature of these changes, which are concomitant with adaptation, that this paper is concerned with in so far as they affect teacher-education curricula.

 

The key question is:  Should universities focus mainly on principles of teaching and learning (Didactics) or on theoretical frameworks that underpin educational policies of the time?

 

 

 

*Amos Mushati, and John Nyamadzavo#

 

*Lecturer: Great Zimbabwe University and # History Examiner (Team Leader) with ZIMSEC

Contact: Tel #: 00 263 39 252 720 ext. 185. Cell #: 00 263 772 937 066

E-mail:  a.mushati@gmail.com

Presentation Type: Oral

Educational assessments

Title:

 

‘Quality Assurance in Education as an Issue of Collective Responsibility’: The Zimbabwe School Examinations Council’s (ZIMSEC) Strategic Vision in the Context of Politico-Economic Upheavals.

 

Abstract

Zimbabwe, since independence, prioritized investment in education to promote universal access to education, empowering the hitherto marginalized blacks and providing quality manpower to stimulate economic development. ZIMSEC, the statutory body mandated with running national school examinations and wholly funded by government, is crucial to this project as examinations underpin the credibility, measurability, comparability and competitiveness of educational systems and its products whilst providing a feedback and quality assurance platform for all stakeholders. Its birth and the localization of examinations are part of educational reforms through indigenization of the curriculum to adapt universal knowledge to the Zimbabwean context to produce nationally conscious and relevant graduates and promote economic development, social cohesion and stability.  The 1999-2010 politico-economic upheavals, global economic recession and the attendant fiscal constraints, led to the collapse of social services characterized by plummeting educational and assessment standards, low staff morale, closure of schools and failure by the under funded ZIMSEC to administer exams proficiently and timorously, procure requisite ICT facilities, train and retain examiners which compromised its reputation and capacity to match international standards. As a quasi-government institution, it has had to take directives to charge non viable, but politically correct fees for political expediency, disregarding the high costs of administering examinations. We have assessed the impact of Zimbabwe’s economic breakdown on ZIMSEC’s administration of exams, evaluated budgetary allocations vis-à-vis operational costs against (inter)national expectations, the survival strategies it has adopted as well as the impact of its strategic vision on service delivery. We recommend that, in the context of rejuvenating the economy and national institutions, quality assurance in education requires a broad based and collective approach to funding and resource mobilization involving government, the private sector, civic society, the donor community, regional and international capacity building agencies like UNESCO and UNICEF- without compromising on quality and the autonomy of ZIMSEC.

Key words: politico-economic, quality, indigenization, collective.

 

 

 

The Role of Curriculum Design and Delivery in enhancement of Gender Equality at the School level in South Africa

 

Despite initiatives to enhance gender equality and equity in education in South Africa, practices at the school level continue to disadvantage both girl and boy learners. Using a survey of 150 high school teachers conveniently sampled from urban and rural areas of one of the provinces and multiple case studies, the study examined how pedagogical practices of teachers, extra curricula activities and other related school practices can disadvantage both boy and girl learners and enhance gender discrimination. Results of the study revealed despite having eradicated gender stereotypes in most of the textbooks, teaching methods, student teacher interaction,  content, curriculum structure and the school culture boy and girl learners continue to be disadvantaged. This is also despite the fact that many teachers and curriculum designers have been trained on issues of diversity and inclusion, gender and education and multicultural education.

 

Authors: P Muhuro, S Rembe and P Tyilo

Corresponding Author: P Muhuro “Muhuro, Patricia” <PMuhuro@ufh.ac.za> University of Fort Hare

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NAME : MRS S.GOVENDER (sgovend1@pan.uzulu.ac.za)

UNIVERSITY OF ZULULAND (Private Bag X 1001, kwaDlangezwa,3886)

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

 TITLE

AN INVESTIGATION INTO STUDENTS’  PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHING METHODS USED AT HIGHER INSTITUTION

 

ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of present study was to ascertain student perceptions of various teaching methods used for teaching 3rd year undergraduate students. Two hundred undergraduate students in the Faculty of Education from University of Zululand completed a questionnaire about the frequency of the various teaching methods used by university lecturers, their perceptions of the most effective methods and reasons for their selection. The findings reveal that the lecture method is most frequently used amongst lecturers. Students feel that they are less frequently exposed to the other teaching methods that require active participation. Although the lecture method is very useful when teaching large groups and it enables the lecturer to present factual material in a logical way, students feel they are often passive and the road of communication is only one way. It is crucial that lecturers expose students to multiple teaching methods thereby maintaining a balance.

NAME : MRS S.GOVENDER (sgovend1@pan.uzulu.ac.za)

UNIVERSITY OF ZULULAND (Private Bag X 1001, kwaDlangezwa,3886)

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The nexus between education and development in Africa

 

By

Jephias Matunhu  (jephiasmatunhu@yahoo.com)

 

Sub Theme: Education and development

Abstract

Rural underdevelopment has been a nagging problem in Africa since the pre-independence era. During colonial rule, higher education was an instrument for furthering the developmental interests of the colonial masters. Africa is now politically independent. Rural underdevelopment still remains, albeit some improvement. What is the nature of the link between education and development? The desktop study claims that there is a link between education and development. However, the linkage is moderated by factors like national policy, corruption, conflict and availability of finance. Data will be collected from books, internet and World Bank Reports on education and rural development in Africa. The theoretical framework of the discourse is the human capital development theory, which states development is a result of an appropriate education system.

Key Terms

Development, Education system, human development, post-colonial Africa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NAME: Ms. H.R. MHLONGO (hmhlongo@pan.uzulu.ac.za)

Dr M.E. Khuzwayo (mkhuzwa@pan.uzulu.ac.za)

Dr M.A.N. DUMA (mduma@pan.uzulu.ac.za)

UNIVERSITY OF ZULULAND (Private Bag X 1001, kwaDlangezwa, 3886)

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

PAPER PRESENTED AT THE 39TH SASE ANNUAL CONFERENCE HELD AT GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY ON 4-6 OCTOBER 2012

Conference theme:  Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

Sub-theme: Curriculum Development and implementation

TITLE

EXPLORING VIEWS OF EDUCATORS ON THE OUTCOMES OF THE READING CAMPAIGN

 

ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of the present study was to understand the efficacy of the reading campaign in improving learners’ competences in reading. The study was conducted in the northern Kwa-Zulu Natal province, and the researcher has chosen Empangeni district as the field of study. The study was conducted in senior phase schools under Mthunzini circuit in Empangeni district with a sample size of sixty educators. Educators answered a questionnaire with both closed and open- ended questions to solicit their views on the implementation of the ELITS’ reading campaign, their awareness of the campaign and availability and accessibility of the quality reading collection supplied by ELITS to schools. The tentative findings reveal that majority of the educators are not aware of the ELITS reading campaign. The distribution of relevant reading material is not made readily available to majority of the schools thereby impacting negatively on learners’ competences in reading.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Teaching of Kalanga Language in Bulilima District: Challenges, Successes and Failures.

Timothy Bhala, email timkabhala@gmail.com , Great Zimbabwe University, Box 1235, Masvingo.

This paper seeks to investigate, not only the extent to which Kalanga Language(one of th major minority languages in Zimbabwe) is being taught as a subject in selected schools in Bulilima District of Matebeleland South (western Zimbabwe), but also the challenges faced in implementing the Kalanga Language curriculum. Users of the Kalanga Language have, since indepedence in 1980, been fighting for recognition through pushing for its inclusion in the primary school curriculum. While the language policy currently in use in Zimbabwe permits schools to use minority languages as medium of instruction up to Grade 3 in areas where they are predominanlty used, such legislation has not been systematically enforced. Minority language communities, through various pressure groups, have been left alone to find ways of getting their languages included in the schools curriculum. To date, of the top six minority languages in the country only Tonga and Shangaan are taught up to Grade Seven in areas where they are predominantly used as L1. It is against this background that the paper seeks to find out how much meaningful ground has been covered, and what challenges have been encountered in attempts to have Kalanga Language taught as a subject at the primary school level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PERCEPTIONS ON WHY MANY WOMEN WILL NOT GET ELECTED INTO LOCAL AUTHORITIES; THE CASE FOR MARONDERA DISTRICT

 

The study sought to find out why the proportion of female councilors in Marondera District, which currently stands at 14{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} is much lower than the proportion of females in the district which is nearly  50{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}. This disparity persists in view of the fact that the Government of Zimbabwe has to date ratified  a number  of global and regional protocols and conventions aimed at redressing gender disparities in politics and decision making. These include the United Nations Conventions on the elimination of  all forms of Discrimination Against Women, CEDAW, ratified in 1991 and the Beijing Declaration which was signed in 1995.

Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews on a sample of 350(i.e. 250 females and 100 males)

The findings included that the younger and the more educated the woman, the more  she will be prepared to become a ward councilor. The five topmost factors which held back women from becoming ward councilors were in decreasing order of significance; society frowns upon aspiring women; lack of resources for women to campaign; women are discouraged by other women; child bearing and rearing responsibilities and a lack of self-confidence. Most of these factors stemmed from the patriarchal nature of indigenous cultures. Other notable factors included political violence. The research findings ultimately fed into a model for nurturing female political leadership

SUBMITTED BY VICTOR MADZINGA-LECTURER FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND LAW, ZIMBABWE OPEN UNIVERSITY, MAT SOUTH REGIONAL CAMPUS

CELLPHONE; 0779136 012 \ 073317 467

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An evaluation of how support groups in Masvingo urban help to minimize stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS

 

Kadodo, Mavies Mrs Zimbabwe Open University kadodomavies@yahoo.com & kadodomavies@gmail.com

 

The purpose of this study was to find out whether support groups in Masvingo urban help to minimize stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS. The research borrowed from both qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The population comprised six support groups each with ten people amounting to a total of sixty people. From this population, stratified random sampling was employed to come up with a sample of thirty people, that is, five from each group. Two instruments were used to collect data, that is, a questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire sought information on how support groups help people living with HIV/AIDS live positive lives. The interview was used to collect data on the importance of sharing information with others. The data was presented in tables and in narrative forms. The research established that most people are of the opinion that support groups play a pivotal role in minimizing stigmatization and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS. Recommendations were made based on the results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Student Teachers’ Conception and Perception of a Conducive  Learning Environment: A

Case of Great Zimbabwe University Students on Teaching Practice

By

 

Tsitsi Nyoni

tsinyoni@gmail.com

Lecturer in the Department of Teacher Development at The Great Zimbabwe University

And

Tafara Mufanechiya

tafaramufanechiya76@gmail.com

Lecturer in the Department of Teacher Development at The Great Zimbabwe University

 

Abstract

In an effort to help student teachers improve the classroom learning environment in order to make it conducive, this research sought to establish the student teachers’ perception and conception of a conducive learning environment. It also aimed at unraveling their rationale for displaying charts, mounting mobiles, setting up of learning centers and displaying children’s work. The questionnaire, interview and observation were the main modes of data gathering. The findings point to the fact that student teachers are aware of the need to create a conducive learning environment but are somehow incapacitated. In most cases they lack the resources and at times are overwhelmed by the numbers that constitute their classes. Another challenge that was observed is that the student teachers are not well equipped with the skills and knowledge  required for such a task and do not see any link of this with their day today teaching. For them whatever displays and settings they put up are actually for assessment purposes. The researchers therefore strongly recommend that the Great Zimbabwe University Department of Teacher Development introduce and take seriously courses in Educational and Media Technology in order to fully equip the student teachers with the much needed skills. Student teachers also need support in the provision of resources through schools linking with the Curriculum Development Unit among other recommendations made.

Key Words: conducive  learning environment, learning centers, mobiles, charts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT DETAILS

Name and contact details of authors Ms Makho Nkosi(Nkosipm@ukzn.ac.za)

School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal

(Edgewood Campus).

Title of the abstract: Challenges and Opportunities faced by School principals in KZN in managing the impact of bride abduction on education in their schools: A narrative inquiry.
Keywords: Bride abduction, ukuthwala, quality school leadership, parental involvement.
Discipline / Field of Study: Leadership & Management.

 

South African schoolgirls as young as 12 years are abducted and made wives against their will in most cases by total strangers. Abductions take place at school, and between school and home. In most cases the men (abductors) are between 55 and 70 years old, widowed and HIV positive. This happens in the name of ukuthwala custom (bride abduction).Abductions have negative impact on schools and in education at large. School principals are facing this challenge on daily basis and have no control for fear of interfering with the custom which is observed in silence within the communities in which they serve. But the principal has a duty and obligation to change negative cultural practices that impact negatively on education in their schools through the involvement of SGB’s, community, teachers, and learners. This study attempts to understand the role of the KZN school principals in understanding and managing the impact of ukuthwala custom (bride abductions) in their schools. This paper is derived from a doctoral research carried out in Zwelibomvu, Bergville (Emangwaneni) and KwaNgcolosi (Emshazi) rural areas of KwaZulu – Natal and reports on ukuthwala as experienced by one participant. A qualitative approach to data collection was used. Data was collected using purposive sample and through in-depth interview techniques with four school principals and two Superintendents of Education (Management) who are heading the education wards under which these principals were serving. Furthermore, four interviews were conducted with each research participant, and I report on the case of Cebi. All interviews and narratives used in this paper were tape – recorded and then transcribed.  Content analysis was used to analyse the data.  Findings suggest that bride abductions have negative impact on schools and education at large. Further, school principals are faced with a huge challenge of managing the impact that bride abduction has on their schools. This paper concludes that principals have power and influence on the communities which they serve, and therefore can use SGB’s and parental involvement to change negative cultural practices through education and awareness campaigns.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learning Outcomes of ‘Publishing Research’ as understood by lecturers at one university in South Africa

 

Abstract

This article draws on a case study of sixlecturers who were teaching Publishing Research in 2010 at one of the universities in South Africa. Publishing Researchwas offered by two campuses of this institution.This article not only gives these lecturers a voice but also identifies and defines the intended, implemented and attained learning outcomes for the module. The six lecturers claimed to be using the same learning outcomes in helping students to achieve the aims if the module but the results of the module tell different stories about the achievement of the learning outcomes. Data collection occurred through document analysis and semi-structured interview.A priori analysis theory (Dhunpath and Samuel 2009 or Freeman and Richards 1996) was used as a framework and this produced the three themes, while the article is framed by Bloom’s Taxonomies of learning. This article prioritises the use of the three domains of Bloom’s Taxonomies (cognitive, skills and value / attitude) in formulating learning outcomes of the module in order to contribute positively towards the well being of the module.

 

Key words: Aims, objectives, intended / implemented / attained learning outcomes, lecturers and Publishing Research

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEACHING OF SOCIAL SCIENCES IN THE CONTEXTOF CURRICULUM CHANGE IN SENIOR PHASE

DumsaniMncube

Abstract

Over the past decade, the department of education introduced a radical and fundamental changes in the school curriculum with a view to redress the imbalances of the past. These envisaged changes required change in educators’ pedagogical knowledge, which meant that educators had to develop a new concept of the envisaged learner, the role of the teacher in the teaching and learning situation and content knowledge. The education and training of Geography and History educators prior to 2000 were equipped with curriculum content and its pedagogy because they enjoyed autonomous status in the school curriculum. The curriculum change which was ushered in with Outcomes Based Education could have exposed those educators’ predicament to which no one has ever experienced.  Integrated teaching and learning or learning across the disciplines is a new terminology or principle in South African schools. This study investigates educators’ experiences and competences in teaching Social Sciences in the context of curriculum change particularly in the Senior Phase. The research targeted Senior Phase educators because they were the ones with experience to teach Social Sciences in grade eight, grade nine and grade ten respectively. The first research instrument was questionnaire that was administered by the researcher to Senior Phase educators for the purpose of soliciting their perceptions and experiences on integrations and learning across disciplines. Second, self assessment sheets were disseminated to Senior Phase educators so that they could rate their understanding of what they are doing in class. Thirdly, interview schedules were used to solicit information about which possible approaches available to educators and whether the interdisciplinary teaching is the effective mode of lesson delivery to celebrated today. Since the researcher has just concluded the data collection phase, the preliminary findings will be presented shortly.

 

Key words:curriculum change ; senior phase;  social sciences

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interactive Model of Programme Planning :a route to the developmentof curricula and learning programmes for adult learners

 Ms N P Khumalo (Correspondence Author)

University of Zululand

E-mail: pnkhumal@pan.uzulu.ac.za

Dr M A N Duma

University of Zululand

E-mail: mduma@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

Abstract

 

The aim of this article is to explore Interactive Model of Programme Planning as a course to the development of curricula and learning programmes for adult learners. Programme designers and instructors facilitate learning and teaching in a particular context. Their experience and skills are important factors influencing the instructional techniques and classroom practice. In this conceptual paper the focus will be on the following components:

  • Establishing  a basis for the planning process
  • Conducting a  training need assessment
  • Developing programme objectives
  • Planning and preparing for the transfer of learning
  • Formulating evaluation plans

 

The paper is concluded byoutlining the assessment criteria of Interactive Model of Programme Planning

namely:

  • The interpretation  and provision of learning programmes and curricula
  • The development, evaluation and recording of plans for original learning programmes and curricula for delivering a related set of learning programmes

Keywords: adult learners; curricula; interactive model of programme planning;learning programmes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title of Paper:  Including the excluded? Deaf pupils in mainstream high schools in Zimbabwe  

Martin Musengi, Centre for Deaf Studies, Wits School of Education, University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg 2050, South Africa.

E–mails: Martin.Musengi@students.wits.ac.za & martin.musengi@fulbrightmail.org

 

Professor Almon Shumba, School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities

Central University of Technology, Free State. Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

E–mails: ashumba@cut.ac.za & almonshumba@yahoo.com

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This case study of two mainstream high schools sought to find out how they include deaf students. Seventeen purposively sampled participants were the principals, two specialist teachers for the deaf, eight mainstream teachers and all five deaf students at the schools. All participants were interviewed and two lessons per school were observed.  It was found that all deaf students were engaged by their teachers as if they were deficient members of the hearing community who achieved remarkable social acceptance but from whom little academic success could be expected. It was found that such attitudes and classroom practices disengaged deaf learners from inclusive learning and so recommendations were made to engage the adult deaf community as stakeholders possessing a valuable language that could unlock the academic curriculum.

 

  • Keywords: inclusion, the excluded, deaf, mainstream high school, Zimbabwe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Authors: Authors: a) Ngara Rosemary       : Lecturer and coordinator –Education Department, Zimbabwe Open University: Email : rosemaryngara@gmail.com                           cell:0 2630773609116

b) Ngwarai Richard           : Lecturer and coordinator        -Department of Disability Studies and Special Needs Education, Zimbabwe Open University, email, richardngwarai@gmail.com                        cell: 26307773902166

                 c) Rodgers Ngara: Deputy Headmaster, Liebenberg High School.cell:0773542996

 

Theme: Teacher Education

Topic: An assessment of T.P Supervision and Assessment as a quality assurance tool in Teacher Training:  A case study of Masvingo teacher training colleges

Teaching practice (T.P.) is a critical stage in the training of prospective teachers as it is a process of producing a master teacher. There are many mechanisms that are put in place to make T.P. a beneficial experience to trainee teachers and student supervision is one of such mechanisms. Supervision and assessment of the trainee teachers is done by the college and mentors and members of the administration at the schools where students will be doing their teaching practice. There are, however, some problems associated with supervision. For instance, supervisors give conflicting suggestions and some supervisions are ill-timed or delayed. A survey was conducted in Masvingo urban schools to determine views of prospective teachers and student teacher supervisors on the effectiveness of T.P supervision as a tool in quality assurance. By and large, participants regarded supervision and assessment as an indispensable tool in assuring quality in teacher training. Nevertheless, some variables were viewed as affecting the effectiveness of supervision. Among them were delays in supervision, supervision being far-spaced from each other, little or no dialogue and lack of consensus on the part of supervisors in dealing with similar issues. Among other things, the study recommended the running of workshops on T.P supervision by training colleges.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Educators’ experiences on the role of parents in the school governing bodies of rural schools

Dr M A N Duma (Correspondence Author)

University of Zululand

E-mail: mduma@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

Mrs I S Kapueja

University of Zululand

mduma@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

Mr P D Khanyile

University of Zululand

E-mail: pkhanyil@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

Abstract

The aim of this article is to investigate the experiences of educators on the role of parents in the school governing bodies of rural schools. Apart from a literature review on the experiences of educators on the role of parents in the governance of rural schools, the article reports on a study in which empirical investigation based on quantitative research paradigm was used to collect data from educators.

The literature findings revealed that the inclusion of parents in the school governing bodies is a critical component of education in South Africa.

The study revealed that empirical findings elicited that educators would like parents to have a significant role to play in school governance.

The study is concluded by the submission that it is essential for parents in the school governing bodies of rural schools to be given necessary training so that they can have a working knowledge of school governance activities.

Keywords: Educators, experiences, parents, rural schools, school governing bodies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name:     DR. EFIRITHA CHAURAYA

                 efirithachauraya@fastermail.com

Institution:  Midlands State university

 

TOPIC:  ACCESS OR INCLUSION? Conceptualization and operationilization of gender equality in Zimbabwe state universities.

 

This articles explores concerns about gender inequality in Zimbabwe state universities. The researcher’s concern arose out of the realization of persistent gender inequalities despite implementation of gender interventions to close gender gaps. Of particular concern is the conceptualization and operationalization of gender equality in the institutions. Dwelling only on the student admissions sector, the paper critically surveys the experiences of the main actors, their vision of gender equality and the impact thereof on the grand goal of gender equality in the context of sustainable development in general and social  change in particular. The study utilized a gender perspective to development, document evidence, questionnaires and in depth interviews with purposively sampled stakeholders. The findings of the study have shed light on the adopted tailoring model of gender equality by the institutions and how the model blinkered the other qualitative gender dimensions of the mainstream, rendering the envisaged goal of gender equality elusive. Based on the findings, useful recommendations are made to resuscitate the almost paralyzed gender equality agenda of the institutions.

Key words: gender equality, model of equality, tailoring approach, sustainable development, gender dimensions.

 

 

 

School leadership and decision making in the inclusion of tourism

Zanele Heavy-Girl Winnie Dube

University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

 

Abstract

Tourism was introduced as a subject that was aimed at bringing about social transformation in

the new era (DoE, 2003). Although it was only a few years ago that tourism was introduced,

schools decided to include tourism in their curriculum offering there is evidence of despair,

dissatisfaction, uncertainty and insecurity about the subject. This situation has led to this paper

aiming at exploring the school leadership and decision making during the inclusion of tourism in

the curriculum. Data was collected through interviews with sixteen participants from four case

schools and analysis of documents. Findings indicate that schools understudy had decided to

include tourism in their curriculum offering. The study argues that school leadership practiced

autocratic style in making decisions for the inclusion of tourism in the curriculum. Data

revealed that there was minimal participative decision making to involve all stakeholders within

the school.

Key words: school leadership            decision making          tourism            curriculum innovation

 

39th Annual International Conference of SASE to be held from 4-6 October 2012.

Theme: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa.

Sub-theme: Assessment in Education

Abstract Submitted by:

Dr Owence Chabaya

Centre For Academic Excellence

University of Limpopo

Turfloop Campus

Tel: +27 15 268 2574

Fax:+27 15 3318

Cell: +27 723040832

Email: owence.chabaya@ul.ac.za

Mr Geoffrey  P. Tshephe

Centre for Academic Excellence

University of Limpopo

Medunsa Campus

Tel: +27 12 521 4125

Fax: +27 12 521 5937

Cell: +27 825929680

Email: geoffrey.tshephe@ul.ac.za

 

 

Topic: Impact of assessment workshops/ Staff development workshops on the practice of health personnel responsible for student assessment in hospitals: A case of Nutrition department.

BY Owence Chabaya and Geoffrey Tshephe

Abstract

Assessment is widely viewed as an integral part of teaching and learning. This view makes clear knowledge  and understanding of  assessment a crucial pre-requisite for those mandated with the role of assessing students in institutions of learning.  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of assessment workshops (staff development workshops) held with nutritionists and dieticians  who were tasked with the role  of  assessing university of Limpopo  students attached to   training hospitals in Polokwane and Garankua area in Pretoria. While in these hospitals, the students are supposed to be supervised and assessed by nutritionists and dieticians who are not part of the university teaching staff.  At the beginning of the year 2012, the Department of Nutrition, engaged the Centre for Academic Excellence to hold workshops with the staff in hospitals tasked with student assessment, unlike in the past where no form of staff development was offered to these student assessors. A qualitative case study with all workshop participants, a group of 50 nutritionists and dieticians in practising hospitals, was carried out. Data was collected through a questionnaire with both open  ended and closed questions as well as interviews.  The findings of the study revealed that the participants gained useful insights into good quality assessment. Some of them realized the things they were not doing well in student assessment and came up with strategies to improve their practice. The study also showed a need for more detailed workshops on particular assessment aspects such as giving meaningful feedback to students as well as use of 360 degree multisource assessment. The study recommended that the university hold more staff development workshops with personnel in health institutions who are tasked with roles of student supervision and assessment.

 

 

 

 

 

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN HOME BASED CARE AND TRAINING: THE CASE OF PHUTHANANG HOME BASED CARE, LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

Chenjerai Muwaniki

Email address:  chenjerai.muwaniki@gmail.com

Great Zimbabwe University

Faculty of Education

Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Great Zimbabwe University

Abstract

This study therefore sought to investigate the challenges and opportunities in home based care and training at Phuthanang Home Based Care in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. South Africa is the hardest hit country, with the highest HIV prevalence rate. It is against this backdrop that home based care has become a national priority. This study therefore sought to investigate the challenges and opportunities in home based care and training at Phuthanang Home Based Care in the Limpopo Province. The case study was carried out between 2008 and 2010 and was entirely qualitative. The case was selected because of its emphasis on training apart from offering home based care services and also its location in a poor township, Mankweng outside Polokwane.  Data was collected from caregivers using open ended interviews, focus group discussion, observations and document review and was analysed using a data matrix. The major findings from the study were that, though Phuthanang Home Based Care is contributing fairly well in providing home based care; it faces several challenges in its operations these include lack of funds, stigmatisation of caregivers, poor collaboration and the burden on women caregivers. The research found out that Phuthanang Home Based Care offers training to its members, patients and also to the community. Of the eighty five patients on its registers thirty seven (41{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}) had received some form of training by the time of the study. It was observed that training offered covers both theoretical and practical issues ranging from counseling, hygiene, adherence to medicine to sewing, baking and market gardening; however there is emphasis on theory. The study concludes that Phuthanang Home Based Care faces challenges in offering home based care and training; however there are opportunities for improvements in service provision. The study recommends that there is need for more skills training sessions on the practical issues in home based care and fund raising. Stigmatisation of caregivers can be reduced if caregivers participate in information dissemination on HIV and AIDS using role play, drama and poetry within the community. Even though this research was done in South Africa it could be an important pointer to the challenges and opportunities in home based care in resource limited settings in the developing world.

Key words: Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Home based Care, Caregivers, training.

 

 

ATTITUDES AND MOTIVATIONS FOR PARTICIPATION AND NON-PARTICIPATION IN ADULT LEARNING BY ADULTS WITH DISABILITIES IN MASVINGO PROVINCE, ZIMBABWE

 

Chenjerai Muwaniki

Email Address: chenjerai.muwaniki@gmail.com

Great Zimbabwe University

Faculty of Education

Department of Adult and Continuing Education

ABSTRACT

This study sought to explore the characteristics, motivations and attitudes of adults with disabilities in relation to their participation and non-participation in adult learning programmes. The research was based on a study sample of 65 disabled adults selected conveniently in Masvingo Province. The study establishes that a minority (20{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}) of disabled adults who participate in adult learning programmes are motivated by the following among others; to obtain skills, to comply with social expectations and for job advancement. On the other hand 80{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} do not participate in adult learning programmes due to lack of information, high costs of programmes and lack of flexible education programmes that suit their different situations. The study found out that reasons for participation in learning by disabled adults are similar to those of adults without any disability; it is because both share similar characteristics of being adults. The research concludes that disabled adults are marginalised in training environments and workplaces as trainees, employees or self-employed – with obvious negative consequences in terms of unemployment, destitution and dependency.  The study recommends a thorough consideration by curriculum designers and facilitators of adult learning on disability so that their programmes would appeal equally to all adult learners despite their disability.

Key words: adults with disability, participation, non participation, adult learning

 

 

 

 

CHILD FRIENDLY SCHOOLS MODEL IN ZIMBABWE: A PIPE DREAM

BY

LEONA MANDIUDZA

GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY

lmandiudza@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The phenomenal, massive and quantitative expansion of the Zimbabwean education system of 1980 resulted in significant challenges related to scarcity of resources. This study explored barriers to the promotion and development of Child Friendly Schools (C.F.S), a model developed to deal with all aspects affecting quality education in schools. The research was a case study of five (5) purposively sampled primary schools in Chiredzi district of Masvingo province, schools that are shunned by teachers. The data was collected through an analysis of the UNICEF framework for rights-based child friendly educational systems to see how far schools selected fell within the framework. School heads and teachers responded to structured questionnaires regarding challenges they encounter in developing child friendly schools. Pupils and parents were interviewed in order to solicit  their views on the state of their schools. The study found out that absence of teaching-learning resources and ignorance of the convention on the rights of children contributed to poor conditions in schools, conditions that thwart learning, found not only at school, but even at home, in the community and society at large. It was also established that most students did not know their rights, thought schooling was to be just as it is and are therefore not complaining. The research study recommended that the government must intervene and see that these poor schools are adequately funded. There is need for all stakeholders to work together for the good of these schools thereby promoting quality and creating conducive atmosphere for the teaching and learning process. This will enhance quality education and the creation of Child Friendly Schools

 

THE IMPACT OF EXAMINATIONS ON THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM. THE ZIMBABWEAN EXPERIENCE

BY

CHINYANI. H

chinyanih@gmail.com

KADODO M

kadodomavies@yahoo.com

MANDIUDZA L

lmandiudza@gmail.com

MADUNGWE L

ldsmadungwe@gmail.com

GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY LECTURERS ABSTRACT

 

Examinations have been and are still an integral part of the education system. This paper explored the effects of the Ordinary level examinations on the school curriculum. It took cognisance of the fact that the area has been explored by many researchers but the paper situates the topic in a Zimbabwean context in which literature attest to the notion that very little has been written. Data gathered from document analysis and interviews conducted with teachers, pupils and various agencies were used to write the paper. The paper corroborates what has been established by researchers on the same issue albeit in other countries that examinations impact negatively on the school curriculum and on the students who are the final target of the curriculum. It therefore, calls for the harmonisation of the two major bodies which define what is to be learnt (The Curriculum Development Unit CDU) and what is to be assessed and the format of assessment (The Zimbabwe Schools Examinations Council ZIMSEC) as a way of alleviating the effects of examinations on the

 

 

 

Theme

Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

 

Sub-Theme

Entrepreneurship and Education

 

Author and Presenter

Mufaro R. Chiwanza

MBA,BCom MKT,CE

Lecturer

at

Zimbabwe Open University

 

Abstract

Entrepreneurship is critical to economic and sustainable development in Zimbabwe and Southern Africa. To what extent can education boost entrepreneurship?

Introduction

Entrepreneurship has emerged as a critical element in the growth of Zimbabwean economy due to the economic downfall and hyperinflation era. This era led to closure of many industries and saw many out of their jobs leading to the mushrooming of small businesses and informal traders for survival, these became the major sources for job creation and economic contribution.

It has been realised that entrepreneurship should be introduced to educational institutions however; at what level should it be taught, what should be taught and how should it be taught? The hiccup is to what extent has education system been used to boost entrepreneurship in support of sustainable development.

Research Methods

Research Methods employed were observation, interviews, questionnaires and focus groups. Questionnaires 500 were randomly distributed and 450 were returned. Descriptive and exploratory designs were used.

Discussions

Although entrepreneurship is taught mostly at tertiary levels, it should be taught from lower levels up to university levels so as to instil self reliance in students not to be job seekers but job makers by starting and running their own businesses. Characteristics that entrepreneurs should possess and be taught must enhance sustainable development in Southern Africa. Entrepreneur must deal with uncertainty innovation and being aware of the competitive environment they face.

Description of an entrepreneur are that one  must be; a risk taker, supplier of financial capital, a decision maker, manager, superintendent, proprietor, contractor and resource allocator all these characteristics need to be instilled in students as early as primary level. With educational programs which include entrepreneurship as part of the curriculum; access, quality and sustainable development will be achieved in Southern Africa.

 

 

students and the school curriculum.

 

 

Theme

Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

 

Sub-Theme

 

Topic

Maths failure a stumbling block for progress in Zimbabwean education and sustainable development in Southern Africa. Case study Gweru Schools.

Author and Presenter

Mufaro R. Chiwanza

MBA,BCom MKT,CE

Lecturer

at

Zimbabwe Open University

Co-Author

Alphonce T.Shiri

MBA,BSBA, Dip Ed

Lecturer

Zimbabwe Open University

mrchiwanza@gmail.com

 

Abstract

abstract

To what extend has maths failure hindered progress in Zimbabwean education and economic development? As a prerequisite to move to the next stage many have fallen aside and have not done what they desired to do in future because of the maths failure. What has gone wrong, why this high maths failure rate? What are the causes of the high failure rate in maths in Zimbabwe?

Teachers where have they gone wrong, is it the primary level or is it the secondary level where things have fallen apart. Stereotyping has it played its role that maths is a difficult subject. The curriculum, syllabus is it so difficult that the majority fails. Syllabus, textbooks are they simple enough to follow.

 

 

 

Theme

Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

 

Sub-Theme

Women in Education

Topic

Women Education in Zimbabwe plays a pivotal role in promoting sustainable development in Southern Africa; however, it is a challenge to achieve.

 

Author and Presenter

Mufaro R. Chiwanza

MBA,BCom MKT,CE

Lecturer

at

Zimbabwe Open University

 

Abstract

Women Education in Zimbabwe plays a pivotal role in promoting sustainable development in Southern Africa; however, it is a challenge to achieve.

Introduction

Women empowerment through education is one of the most critical strategies to be employed to advance sustainable development in Zimbabwe and Southern Africa; this is a pandora box and a challenge to achieve.

If women are empowered through education this strategy will tremendously advance development, why then are women still lagging behind in education and depriving sustainable development in Zimbabwe and Southern Africa?

Research Methods

Research Methods employed were observation, interviews, questionnaires and focus groups. Questionnaires 500 were randomly distributed and 450 were returned. Descriptive and exploratory designs were used.

Admire Mhindu <admhindu@gmail.com> T

OPIC: FACTORS WHICH MILITATE AGAINST THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 2006
MOTHER TONGUE EDUCATION AMENDMENT POLICY AT FOUR SELECTED SCHOOLS IN
MASVINGO AND MWENEZI DISTRICTS.


The research sought to investigate the challenges faced by teachers,
pupils and parents in implementing the 2006 Education Amendment policy
on the use of the mother tongue as medium of instruction at Victoria
Junior and Dikwindi primary schools (where Shona is predominantly
spoken) and Chitanga and Rutenga primary schools (where Shangaan is
predominantly spoken).The researcher used the survey research design
with questionnaire, interview and observation techniques employed to
collect data on the research topic.The population comprised ninety
-eight teachers, three hundred and eighty-one pupils, four school
heads and two Education Officers.Forty teachers, two Education
Officers, four school heads and eighty pupils drawn from Victoria
Junior, Dikwindi, Chitanga and Rutenga primary schools participated as
the sample. A total of eight lessons were observed in an endeavor to
establish the challenges faced by teachers in implementing the 2006
Language Amendment Act on the use of the mother tongue as medium of
instruction.The research findings revealed that the 2006 Language
Amendment Policy is operating in the face of many challenges, chief
among them being the colonial legacy, shortage of both human and
material resources,low prestige attached to the indigenous languages
and lack of incentives on the use of the learners’ L1 among other
things.The research thus, concluded that where a language is not
highly valued by the user community it is unlikely to be used as
medium of instruction.It was recommended that the government take
immediate action to address the hindering factors to effective
language policy implementation so as to bring education to the
doorsteps of every citizen especially the marginalized groups who lack
the exposure to the English Language.

 

 

 

Chosen  Sub- Theme: Gender Issues in  Education

 

Title: Affirmative action by lowering university entry points for females: Great Zimbabwe University students’ views.

 

Rugare Mareva

And

Felix P. Mapako

 

Great Zimbabwe University

Faculty of Education

Department of Curriculum Studies

P O Box 1235

Masvingo

 

E-mail address: marevarugare@gmail.com

                            felixmapako@gmail.com

                           

Abstract

 

Some universities in Zimbabwe have sought to address student enrolment gender imbalances by lowering entry points for female applicants. This study aimed at soliciting for and comparing the views of male and female students on the issue, using Great Zimbabwe University as a case study. In-depth interviews were held with twenty-five female and twenty-five male first year Bachelor of Arts students who were randomly selected to participate in this qualitative inquiry. The study established that more female than male students saw this positive discrimination as a noble idea as it, inter alia, promotes diversity and empowers females in this patriarchal society. However, some female students were of the view that this form of affirmative action should be discontinued as it is demeaning and insulting because it seems to imply that females cannot achieve the same or higher level of academic performance at A- Level than males. More male than female students were against affirmative action, arguing that it promotes the enrolment of ‘unqualified’ students, thus lowering university academic standards. The male students also felt the policy short-changed and marginalized them and they suggested that there might be need for ‘reverse’ affirmative action in favour of males in the near future. The paper concludes that there are mixed views regarding the lowering of university entry points for females and recommends further national debate on this pertinent issue.

 

 

 

AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES IN ZIMBABWEAN UNIVERSITIES

BY

BEATRICE BONDAI

UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE

 

ABSTRACT

This is a qualitative evaluation of the effectiveness of guidance and counselling services in Zimbabwean universities. The study is premised on the understanding that effective guidance and counselling services are integral in universities. Dogan (2012) remarks that university years are a critical period in a person’s life. It is during this period of completing adolescence and struggling to become an adult that young people face the difficulties of both this certain developmental period and the hardships brought by university life. Hayes (1997) and Day (2004) concur that most university students strive to achieve a balance between their academic and personal lives, and guidance and counselling services are effective and efficient ways of helping them achieve this. This underlines the essence of effective guidance and counselling services in universities. It is against this background that the study would want to establish the extent to which guidance and counselling services in Zimbabwean universities are effective in addressing students’ diverse needs. The study, which is going to be conducted in five of the eleven Zimbabwean universities, employs a descriptive survey design. All in all twenty counsellors and thirty four students, conveniently sampled, will participate in the study. University counsellors will respond to researcher constructed questionnaires and students will be engaged in focus group discussion. The anticipated benefits of the study are multidimensional in that they will enlighten students on the need of seeking guidance and counselling services; counsellors’ attention will be drawn to areas that need focus, change and development; administrators and stakeholders will also get insight on the need to support guidance and counsellingservices in terms of qualified human and adequate material resources; and researchers and scholars will get information that will help them identify areas that need research.

 

 

 

 

AN IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE TECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS IN THE INFORMAL INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

 

Richard Bukaliya, Zimbabwe Open University, Mashonaland East Region

Email: bukaliar@yahoo.com

 

Rittah Kasowe, Zimbabwe Open University, Mashonaland Central Region

Email: ritakasowe@hotmail.com

 

 

Sub theme: Entrepreneurship and Education

Abstract

The Zimbabwean education systems requires that all pupils entering into secondary schools do technical and vocational subjects and to heed to this policy, the majority of schools have implemented these technical/vocational subjects. Issues of relevancy of the subject to the needs of the immediate community and availability of resources need to be considered in the selection of these subjects hence the majority of schools in the rural areas have opted for Agriculture and Building Studies. Where electricity is available, the majority of schools in urban areas have opted for computer education and metalwork among other subjects. The present study was aimed at establishing the impact of the implementation of these subjects to the informal industrial sector in selected urban settings. Being a case study, the study employed the use of questionnaires to solicit data from the respondents. The population of the study consisted of all the small scale informal industries in Chegutu urban involved in Metalworking, ICT, building and block laying and textile and clothing. A sample of 30 respondents was chosen through convenience sampling based on availability. Results of the study show that there has been a remarkable impact in the informal sector by former students of schools in Chegutu town particularly in welding, garment construction and in the construction industry. However, a lot challenges are besetting the work of this new breed of entrepreneurs which include inadequate funding and lack of space for the activities. It was recommended that the urban council should avail land and banks should be approached to fund these projects.

 

 

 

 

 

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

FACULTY OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

 

Authors: Professor L Nkiwane, and Mary Dlodlo.

TITLE:  An Investigation into Problems Faced by the Rural Girl Child in Secondary Education in Bulilima District in Zimbabwe

Abstract

This study was conducted in Bulilima district of Zimbabwe in 2007, during the period when the country was going through its worst economic decline since independence. A descriptive study was conducted and problems faced by secondary school children especially girls in rural day schools were investigated. Data was collected, using guided interview questionnaires for secondary school girls and boys, and focus group discussions with the school communities. Data was analyzed using the Software Package for Social Science (SPSS). The major problems identified in the education of girls in secondary schools were among others teenage pregnancy, students walking long distances to schools, poverty and child abuse in the communities. Problems identified were associated with the home and school environment and financial support of rural school children. The study high lighted that girls in rural areas encounter more problems as compared to boys in secondary schools. Findings of the study could be applicable to many similar situations within the country. It was concluded that the study has implications to those interested in the development and education of female students during and after secondary education.

 

 

 

AN INVESTIGATION INTO CARE-LABEL KNOWLEDGE ON TEXTILE PRODUCTS BY CHESVINGO RESIDENTS IN MASVINGO ZIMBABWE

Isabel  MMupfumira

Department of Curriculum Studies

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

Abstract

The study examined knowledge of consumers on the care labels found on textile products. A qualitative survey was conducted to collect data for the study from the residents of Chesvingo high density suburb in Masvingo Zimbabwe. The population of the study comprised of women in Chesvingo retail shops and flea markets in the city of Masvingo. The participants were drawn using convenience and availability sampling. Data were collected from three retail shops, one flea market and ten women from Chesvingo residential area. The interview, questionnaire and observation methods were used to collect data. It was established by the study that some clothing from both the retail shops and flea market did not have care information. It was also established that most of the women did not follow information on the care labels due to lack of knowledge on their meanings and application. The study recommends community based teaching programs on care labels and that schools incorporate knowledge on textile care in the education for living curriculum. The study further recommends that all textile products have care labels to facilitate proper care of textiles.

 

 

 

Challenges faced by disabled students at the University of Zululand: Preliminary findings from a study investigating inclusiveness practices at the University of Zululand

 

Johannes F Magwazaand Muzi V Nzama jmagwaza@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

 University of Zululand

 

Abstract

This paper reports some preliminary findings on the study that seeks to explore inclusive education practices at the University of Zululand. UNESCO (2009) defines inclusive education as a“…process of strengthening the capacity of the education system to reach out to all learners … As an overall principle, it should guide all education policies and practices, starting from the fact that education is a basic human right and the foundation for a more just and equal society.” According to Giffen (2012:1) inclusive education is “… the practice of teaching disabled students alongside their non-disabled peers in regular classroom settings, instead of segregating them in special classrooms.”

For its theoretical framework, the study draws on Len Barton’s (2003) theory of inclusive education. Data from interviews, questionnaires and observations indicates that while the University admits students with disabilities, there is a lack of proper planning, preparation and support for students with disabilities. Disabled students still feel excluded and not as members of the university community.The paper concludes by making some suggestions on how the university can be fully inclusive.

 

 

Thematic Area:  Children at risk .

Girl Child Network in Zimbabwe .An external Eagle eye.

BY  

GillietChigunwe. Lecturer Zimbabwe Open University

Anyway Katanha .lecturer Zimbabwe Open University   akatanhaa@gmail.com

 

Children are exposed to various forms of abuse due to a complex set of variables; top of the list is poverty. This article gives an in-depth external monitoring and evaluation of a community indigenous Non-Governmental organisation whose main thrust is to fight for the rights of the girl child in terms of education, health and other social basic needs in Zimbabwe .This paper examined the four main programmes being implemented by Girl Child Network (GCN), which are Education and Girls empowerment, Girls at Risk Unit, Advocacy and Lobby, and Information and Dissemination. The main question being addressed is whether the above mentioned programmes has led to  risk reduction and better management of sexually abused girls in Zimbabwe ? or it’s an amorphous set of programmes whose results needs a lot to be desired basing on the socio economic ,political, traditional and religious landscape in Zimbabwe? The analysed information was solicited from Staff members of the organisation, beneficiaries, and members of the community, responsible authorities and other stakeholders, using structured questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and related literature review. The analysis of information gathered from Rusape and Chihota rural areas where GCN conducts programmes, focused on the functions responsibilities, challenges and possible recommendations to improve GCN, s activities. The article shows that the issue of the Girl Child is not taken with the seriousness it deserves from some members of the society mainly because the Zimbabwean law is imbued with a lot of leniency to the children abusers hence GCN faced some challenges in implementing some of its programmes .The paper recommends the government to put in place stiffer penalties and empower NGOs like GCN to execute their duties without fear or favour this would lead to significant strides in addressing this humanitarian challenge whose statistics are alarmingly high. The Article further recommends the government and non-governmental organisations like GCN to adopt new policies by which will aggressively expand, address the development and implementation of programs mitigating the causes and consequences of Girl,s at Risk.

 

Key Words:

Girls at Risk,Empowerment,Girl Chid ,Abuse,Information dissemination.

 

 

 

THE QUALITY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT (ECD 4-5 YEAR OLD) PROGRAMMES IN HARARE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ZIMBABWE

Name:  Tendai Chikutuma

 

Belvedere Technical Teachers College

E-mail address: tchikutuma@gmail.com

 

Abstract

The study aims at establishing the quality of Early Childhood Development programmes in Harare primary schools in Zimbabwe. The research design will be a descriptive  survey which is  mainly qualitative in nature. Interviews, observations and document analysis will be the instruments  for the study.  Participants (26 heads, 26 ECD teachers, 26 parents and 780 ECD learners) will be drawn from primary schools from  26 suburbs of Harare . Qualitative data will be thematically  analysed  Quantitative data will be tabulated. The study hopes to help policy makers and implementers have a criteria of ascertaining quality ECD education.  Such information is also anticipated to enable primary schools to improve service delivery of ECD B learners. Policy makers will base the future of ECD programmes on the results of the study. It will also provide information that could contribute towards good practices and that promote ECD children’s rights to quality education and care. The study will also add to the limited literature in Zimbabwe on the quality of ECD education.

 

 

 

 

UNDERAGE AND UNPROTECTED: PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF CHILD LABOUR ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF LEARNERS IN ZIMBABWE.

 

Mrs.  Kudzai Chinyoka 

Great Zimbabwe University

Faculty of Education

Department of Educational Foundations

Lecturer in Educational Psychology

Email chinyokak@gmail.com

Tel   +263 773 551 922

ABSTRACT

 

This article examines the psychosocial effects of child labour on the academic performance of form one learners in Masvingo province, Zimbabwe. It also aims to identify mitigation policies and measures designed to reduce child labour’s negative effects on children.  The qualitative descriptive survey design was used with focus group discussions, interviews and observations as data collection instruments to eighteen (18) children, six (6) parents and six (6) teachers. The study is informed by Urie Bronfenbrenners’ ecological theory. Child labour is a significant social and human rights problem growing in the world today. In Zimbabwe, child labour is found in several sectors including large commercial farms, communal areas, domestic work, small-scale mining and gold panning operations, micro-industries and the informal sector. This study  established that the common causes of child labour are poverty  related. Mixed feelings were noted on the psychosocial effects of child labour on academic performance.  It was found that child labourers provided a source of income to sustain families although their working conditions are severe, often not providing the stimulation for proper physical and mental development. It was observed that child labour does more harm than good to the cognitive development of learners. The study recommended that, the government should strive to ensure that sound social security measures are put in place to take care of such children. Poor families should be given knowledge about family planning/control so that they are not burdened by children. There is also need to address the root problems of child labour and poverty.

Key words:  child labour,  poverty, cognitive development, psychosocial,  form one

 

 

 

 

Submission to the 39th Annual International Conference of SASE to be held from 4-6 October 2012.

 

Sub-theme:  Curriculum Development  and implementation

 

 

Teachers’ experiences in their implementation of the National Curriculum Statement in one district of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

 

By

 

E N Cishe (Dr)

Faculty of Education

Walter Sisulu University

Private Bag x1

WSU

E-mail:  bandlac@gmail.com

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This paper reports teachers’ experiences in their implementation of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS).  A qualitative research design was adopted.  The paper was informed by grounded theory.  Interviews conducted in the participants’ places of work were used to generate data.  In selecting the participants, a combination of purposive, theoretical and systematic sampling was used. The sample comprised a total of sixty teachers selected from twenty schools in four circuits of the King SabataDalindyebo Municipality.  From each school, one teacher from each of the Foundation and Intermediate Phases as well as one member of the School Management Team participated.

 

Once gathered, the data were analysed using coding and theoretical sampling procedures to establish relationships and examine commonalities and differences between different categories of participants.  The findings revealed that most of the teachers did not fully understand the outcomes-based methods of teaching; teachers faced a number of implementation challenges which rendered collaboration difficult and that the School Management Team participants found it difficult to manage the curriculum implementation.  In conclusion, the paper suggests some implications for practice and policy with respect to curriculum development and its implementation.

 

 

 

 Mainstreaming Inclusion in the Secondary Teacher Education Curriculum.

 

Sub-theme: Teacher Education

Presenters:

O. Mafa (PhD). Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Bulawayo Region. oniasmafa@gmail.com or o_mafa@yahoo.com

M.C. Tarusikitwa (PhD). Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Matabeleland North Region. mctarusikirwa@gmail.com

 

Abstract

The basic education philosophy has invariably altered the academic profile of pupils populating Zimbabwe’s public secondary schools.  Teachers are having difficulties handling inclusive classes.  Similarly, most pupils’ individual needs are hardly addressed in such classes.  Teachers do not seem to posses the necessary skills to effectively teach inclusive classes.  Most if not all, aim their teaching at the presumed average pupil – meaning that the gifted pupils are not cultivated to their academic potential while pupils having learning disabilities and other educational needs are lost in the academic maze.  In the face of all these didactic problems, questions have been raised regarding the suitability of the country’s teacher education programme.  This study interrogates the current secondary teacher education curriculum, explores the challenges experienced by lecturers as they attempt to equip teacher trainees with inclusive teaching skills and suggest strategies that teachers’ colleges can adopt in order to mainstream Inclusion in teacher education curriculum.  The study adopts a qualitative approach, where focus group discussions will be used to generate data from lecturers in secondary teachers’ colleges.  The design will be triangulated through document analysis, where teacher education syllabi will be examined to establish the extent to which inclusion is addressed in secondary teacher education. Data shall be transcribed, verified, segmented, coded and analysed using thematic content analysis.

 

 

The Two Pathway Education System – A relevant innovation or a reincarnation of the F1 – F2 System?

Sub-theme: Education Policy

Presenters:

O. Mafa (PhD). Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Bulawayo Region. oniasmafa@gmail.com or o_mafa@yahoo.com

M.C. Tarusikitwa (PhD). Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Matabeleland North Region. mctarusikirwa@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract

Pupils populating our schools have different needs, abilities, aspirations and career orientation. Some pupils are academically gifted others excel in practical and technical subjects. The realisation of these differences has prompted the introduction of the Two Pathway Curriculum in Zimbabwe’s secondary education system. They are chances that this system could be viewed by some as a reincarnation of the F1 – F2 system – a colonial education system that was based on availing a sub-standard education to the indigenous people. This is a system where after Form Two, pupils are channelled either to the academic stream or the practical/technical stream. This paper explores the extent to which this policy has been successful, implementation challenges and recommends suggestions for effective implementation.  The study adopts a qualitative approach where data will be collected from purposively sampled school heads, teachers and pupils through interviews.  Data will be transcribed, verified, segmented, coded and analysed using the thematic content analysis approach.

 

 

Provide the Condom and Spoil the Child?: Complexities of Providing Condoms to School Children in Zimbabwe.

BY

DUBE LIKETSO

Great Zimbabwe University. Faculty of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies

Email- liketsodube@gmail.com/umnumzanald@cooltoad.com

AND

NDLOVU SAMBULO

Great Zimbabwe University. Faculty of Arts, Department of African Languages and Literature.

Email- matsilaneg@gmail.com

# 00263-772851988

ABSTRACT

Condom use is a complex topic in African cultures and some sectors of Christianity. The advocacy for human rights has increased in recent years with reproductive health advocates fighting for the provision of condoms to all. In recent years the condom advocacy has been taken to schools, the issue has been debated in countries like America, for example, and the advocacy has come to Zimbabwe. This paper seeks to investigate whether the provision of condoms to school children can be practical in Zimbabwe, and if allowed will it not further spoil the discipline of school children which we think has already been spoiled by sparing the rod. Advocating the provision of condoms to school children raises numerous complexities in Zimbabwe that the whole society  needs to contend with. The distribution of condoms has not been fully accepted in Zimbabwe, let alone in schools. The advocates have a case because their argument is that children are having sex and need to be protected from its consequences, and democracy provides for that privilege. This paper is interested in the complexities the advocates are likely to face from a cultural, Christian, government and legal perspective. Zimbabwean cultures are not receptive to condom use, most Christian churches will not allow children to have sex yet they own the majority of boarding schools, while the legal age of majority is 18 years and most school children are below it and are minors who cannot engage in sex. Advocates want to save the children from the consequences of unprotected sex in a community that is less likely to take their advocacy positively, instead the community views this as spoiling the children and eroding the moral fabric in them at a tender age.

 

 

 

THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY ON ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION WITHIN THE CLASSROOM CONTEXT

Ovbiebo Matthew Osaigbovo

University of South Africa

Department of Teacher Education

E-mail: attitude_altitude@yahoo.com

+27 834 863 869

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of technology on attention and concentration within the South African classroom. The theoretical investigation showed the link between focus, attention and concentration. It also revealed the importance of motivation in order to capture the attention of the learner in the classroom. The life-world of the learner is often far removed from the classroom learning context. During the empirical investigation, lessons were conducted with and without the presence of technology in order to ascertain whether a difference in attention and concentration would elicit different results. An ANOVA procedure indicated that there is a significant difference between the average achievements of a group of learners exposed to technology during a lesson, compared to a group not exposed to technology; there is a significant difference between the average attentions of a group of learners exposed to technology during a lesson compared to a group not exposed to technology; there is a significant relationship that exists between motivation and concentration; and that a significant relationship exists between motivation and attention in Teaching.

Keywords: attention, concentration, focus, technology, motivation, teaching

 

SOUTHERN AFRICA SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, SEPTEMBER, 2011

 

Great Zimbabwe, 4 – 6 ND OCT 2012

 

THEME  Access  Quality and Access in  Education  for Sustainable Development in Southern Africa

 

Sub-Theme : Teacher Education

 

Title of Paper: Can Teachers be trained  through Open and Distance Learning: Challenges faced by the  Zimbabwe Open University

 

 

Cuthbert  Majoni, Zimbabwe Open University, Mashonaland Central Region P. Bag 984, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 263+71+ 7161/7484/7107   Cell 077 2 678 966, cmajoni@gmail.com and

 

 

Abstract

This paper will highlight the challenges experienced by the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) in training teachers wholly through Open and Distance Learning (ODL). The Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the only open and distance state university training teachers wholly at a distance. There are ten regional centres geographically spread in the country.    Since 2007, the programme been offered in the ten regions of ZOU.   So far two intakes have completed the training programme. This is  the first time in Zimbabwe for  students to be trained through ODL .The main question is   what are the experiences of these  students in training and what  challenges  ZOU is  facing ,how  is it  coping  with these  challenges what do stakeholders say about the quality of  graduates?

 

 

 

SOUTHERN AFRICA SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, SEPTEMBER, 2011

 

Great Zimbabwe, 4 – 6 ND OCT 2012

 

 

THEME   Access  Quality and Access in  Education  for Sustainable Development in Southern Africa

 

Sub-Theme :   Leadership and Management

 

Title of Paper: Leadership Challenges Faced by   Academic Leaders  in  Open and Distance Learning Institutions in Zimbabwe. A Case of the Zimbabwe Open University

 

Cuthbert  Majoni, Zimbabwe Open University, Mashonaland Central Region P. Bag 984, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 263+71+ 7161/7484/7107   Cell 077 2 678 966,    cmajoni@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract

This paper will seek to find out the challenges faced by academic leaders in a decentralized set up universities in Zimbabwe. Most departments rely on part-time lecturers who work for other institutions and owe allegiance to other organizations. What leadership challenges are faced by academic departments as they execute their duties and how is this impacting on service delivery in the institution. It is hoped  this paper will recommend leadership approaches that will assist in improving departmental and institutional management.

 

 

Academic support experiences of distance education students in the flooded plains of Caprivi Region, Namibia

Dr Nchindo Richardson Mbukusa

Deputy Director
Centre for External Studies
University of Namibia
Tel: +264 61 2063619/3676;  E-mail: nmbukusa@unam.na – Web:http://www.unam.na

Abstract

Despite the plethora of studies that have been conducted on student support services, little qualitative investigation through in-depths interviews has been conducted with the purpose of understanding how students in remote rural flooded areas of the Caprivi Region in Namibia are supported. In response, four students teaching and studying in flooded plains were interviewed. Results illuminated the theme of “logistics/personal and natural disasters” of the learning experience as inhibiting success in learning.  The main theme included subthemes such as flood and the transactional distance from the regional centre, flood and vacation school, flood and late assignments, flood and students’ interaction with other students and their lecturers. In order to give meaningful and effective student support services in such environments of learning, further research needs to focus on the cost of establishing, using and maintaining the necessary infrastructure in the flooding areas of the Caprivi region.  Natural disasters not only hinder development, but also exert an enormous toll on human safety and property. Though ODL institutions in Namibia cannot control natural disasters such as flood, proper planning and implementation of policies reduces pressure on distance education students.

Key words:  academicstudent support, flooded areas, experiences of students, remote rural students

 

 

DISTANCE EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCES OF PROJECT WORK SUPERVISION IN NAMIBIA

Dr Nchindo Richardson Mbukusa

Lecturer/Coordinator

Centre for External Studies

University of Namibia

Rundu, NAMIBIA

Office contact +264 255185 (tel&fax)

Mobile contact +264 811 298174

 

Abstract

Meeting with supervisors is part of the practices for any first time graduate research student.  However, was the meeting effectively conducted? Did the meeting really help the student to progress in their research and did the supervisor give proper guidance and advice to the aspiring research student during the meeting?  Despite several international studies that have been conducted on MA and PhD supervision, little qualitative investigation has been conducted on students doing undergraduate project work in an attempt to understand how the supervisory relationship is experienced. In response, 75 students from rural and urban schools doing Specialised Diploma in Educational Management and Leadership (SDEML) at the Centre for External Studies, University of Namibia (CES-UNAM) were interviewed using focus group and in-depth interviews.  The study results centred on the theme of project supervision as an academic support service with themes such as ineffective supervision feedback from supervisors, supervision feedback too little too late from supervisors, inadequate vacation school guidance on supervision and lack of commitment from supervisors.  Supervisors must help their students understand that they need to manage their interactions with supervisors and fellow students doing the same programme. Students empowered with the knowledge of helping them manage their experiences as distance education students could lead to added confidence and decision-making ability, thus reducing the burden on supervisors. Students’ and supervisors’ combined awareness and acceptance of students as managers of the interactive supervision process could develop into an added dimension of self-regulated learning, which has been identified as an important element in graduate education (Styles and Radloff, 2001).

Key Words: Supervision, undergraduate students, focus group interviews, supervisory relationships, feedback, vacation school

 

 

Quality in education: An analysis of the adequacy and appropriateness of WASH services for urban ECD A and B children

 

Thelma Dhlomo

thelmad6@gmail.com

Early Childhood Development

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Gunhu M. Rwatirera

matthewgun@yahoo.com

Curriculum Studies

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Abstract

Availability of adequate age appropriate WASH services is critical in the provision of quality early childhood development (ECD). This study focused on the provision of WASH services at four urban ECD centres in Masvingo. The centres were chosen through purposive sampling to cater for the varied early childhood development providers. Data were collected through observations and interviews. Descriptive analysis was used to analyse data. Findings revealed that ecd caregivers were trying their best to inculcate good wash habits through monitoring children’s personal hygiene and hand washing. ECD providers were also trying to adapt the hardware they have to suit the young learners. However, children were still being exposed to WASH related diseases through, for example, over crowdedness, inadequate and age inappropriate facilities. The study recommended the need for more age appropriate WASH hardware.

 

 

 

The use and misuse of attributive verbs in academic writing at university level: a case study of Great Zimbabwe University.

Felix Petros Mapako

&

Rugare Mareva

Email: felixmapako@gmail.com

marevarugare@gmail.com

Great Zimbabwe University

Department of Curriculum Studies

P O Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

 

ABSTRACT

The need for quality teaching and learning for sustainable development in higher education is an issue of sustained concern. As lecturers in Communication Studies/Skills at this university, the realisation of the importance of attributive verbs in acknowledging intellectual property has spurred the researchers to carry out an investigation into the frequency of the use and misuse of attributive verbs in 100 assignments from the 2012 first year intake. This study has unearthed, through content analysis of the 100 assignments, that students have serious challenges in either over-using some attributive verbs, to the extent of monotony, while avoiding others, showing serious failure to understand basic meanings of such and in what contexts they may be used correctly. In many instances, students failed to establish correct subject verb agreement in their use of attributive verbs. Such mistakes tended to compromise quality of work for tertiary assessment. The researchers recommend that, during the 60+ hours contact with students, the relevant lecturers need to focus and emphasise more on this important aspect of communication because it has far-reaching consequences as it impacts negatively on their other courses. There is dire need by stidents concerned to use dictionaries which help them understand the basic meanings of attributive verbs before employing them in their assignments.

 

 

 

GENDER EQUALITY IN THE CRUCIBLE: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS IMPEDDING THE ATTAINMENT OF GENDER EQUALITY IN SOUTHERN AFRICA SCHOOLS 

By Madambi S, Walter Sisulu University; RSA

 

This paper intends to make a critical analysis of the factors that militate against the attainment of gender equality in education, with a special focus on schools in Southern Africa.

Gender bias in education is a problem. Several conferences and forums aimed at fighting for gender equality in education were held at various levels for many years. The Jomtien conference (1995) and The Dakar Educational Forum (2000) are good examples. The conferences and forums galvanised many countries and organisations into embarking on programmes aimed at ensuring equal access to quality education in educational institutions by 2015.

However, reports by UNESCO (2006, 2007 & 2008) indicate that many countries still fall short of gender parity in education. Attaining gender equality in education remains a big challenge (Sadker & Zittleman 2007). Blumberg (2007) observed that while attaining gender equality in some countries was going on at a glacier pace, in some other countries it will remain remote at its best. This has prompted this writer to give an analysis of the factors that hinder progress in achieving gender equality in education.

The paper will give an introduction to the paper, aims and objectives of the paper, background, definition of key terms and a brief literature review. An analysis will then be given. Possible solutions to counter the given factors will be suggested

 

 

 

‘I knew it was a woman!’- Cultural perceptions on women and their impact on sustainable economic development in Zimbabwe.

by Ms Tendai Fortune Muringa, Lecturer in the Department of African Languages and Culture ,

Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

Email-      tendaimuringa@gmail.com

Abstract

Gender equality is a subject which has drawn attention among different organisations in Zimbabwe and as result most women have secured varying positions as key players in the economic industry. The effort to address gender equality in the work place has however been marred with sentiments that connote dissatisfaction and failure by women to execute their tasks. Therefore, it is pertinent to understand the root cause of such perceptions in contemporary societies especially when different institutions are recruiting more women in the name of gender equality in Zimbabwe. The paper seeks to reveal how cultural perceptions surrounding women affect their contribution to sustainable economic development and if at all such issues can be resolved in Zimbabwe. tendaimuringa@gmail.com

  • Key words – cult ural perceptions, women, sustainable economic development

 

Indigenous Shona Hunhu values informing a community of practices among marginalised successful low socioeconomic status African students of Mbare, Harare in Zimbabwe

 

Abstract

This article explores the rich indigenous Shona Hunhu values and how they are dynamically employed as alternative community of practices by highly reflexive marginalised students to an otherwise collapsed mainstream education system. The case demonstrates that in postcolonial Africa, wide gaps exist unabated between pedagogical policy and effective practice; thus leading to academic failure of huge numbers of students who cannot take up competitive places in post secondary education or the world of work. After critically examining the culture led creative educational praxis these young people introduce us to, the article focuses on the proposition that African indigenous learners would prosper culturally and educationally by having access to or adopting the collective educational practical models and partnerships instead of waiting for curricula reform premised on purely middle class western ideals and theories a feat which cannot be met by the meagre finances of the majority of African states. The article draws on investigative work which in the main was a PhD project (Leadus Madzima, 2010).

 

Dr Leadus Madzima

Postdoctoral Fellow

Department of Education

Rhodes University

Email: l.madzima@gmail.com

Mobile: +27738876483

 

 

 

Indigenous knowledge systems and psychosocial services for young adults in different Zimbabwean Communities.

 

Chipo Chirimuuta, Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages and Media studies, P.O. Box MP1119, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe, ( e-mail address: chirimuutac@gmail.com) 0734 533 997 or 0772 922 603

And

Enna  Gudhlanga,  Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages and Media studies, P.O. Box MP1119, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe, ( e-mail address: gudhlangaes@gmail.com

 

Theme: Indigenous Knowledge Systems

 

Growing up, particularly entry into adult hood, has always been noted to be one of the most difficult and traumatic experience that demands extensive and extensive social support. It is, however, unfortunate that provision of psychosocial services in most African societies has always been associated with the coming of the Western countries, giving the impression that Africa came into contact with the concept of providing psychosocial support at the point of its hand shake with colonialism. It is against this background that this paper attempts to explore the indigenous knowledge systems that were used for the provision of psychosocial services, particularly for young members of the society. The main questions at stake would be: Can Zimbabweans claim to have a share of knowledge within the discipline of psychosocial support systems?  Were these systems effective enough to deal with the social challenges that they were designed to address? Can these indigenous forms of psychosocial support be utilized for the present day challenges of the social and biological changes within the individuals’ life experiences? These and many other questions will provide that ground against which this research will take off. The papers would also attempt to address that challenges that militate against that effective use of that indigenous knowledge systems in psychosocial support for the young members of the society in Zimbabwe in the present day environment. For purposes of carrying out this research, interviews will be carried out to find out on the different forms of psychosocial support that were used, and may still be in use in present day Zimbabwe.

 

 

 

 

Intellectual Property Rights and Sustainable Development in Africa: Whither Zimbabwe?

 

Fortune Sibanda, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo

Email: sibanda35@gmail.com

And

Richard S. Maposa, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo

Email: maposars@gmail.com

Abstract

The conflict concerning intellectual property rights has been on-going since the 1960s when African countries attained independence. The conflict is underpinned by the dialectical western and African perspectives in face of globalisation. African artistes like musicians, sculptors, dramatists, writers and academics are alienated from rewards that flow from their creative works. These artistes tend to focus on producing and performing their works at the expense of balanced financial returns. This scenario is a site of struggle. Unless the imbalance is re-interrogated and reversed, the African artistes remain at the periphery. Accordingly, the paper seeks to sensitise on the threats of piracy to both the literary and performing arts. By focusing on Zimbabwe, it is argued that there is need to fully harness the local talent and protect intellectual property rights to stem piracy, non payment or underpayment and unfair contractual practices. Whereas we bemoan that without proper benefits, local artistes are reduced to merely doing art-for-art’s sake, operating as underdogs and eventually ‘pass on’ as paupers, the study challenges African leadership to be pragmatic in protecting local talent from ‘predators’. The study posits that education must play an instrumental role for human consciousness and empowerment for sustainable development.  Whither Zimbabwe? The research recommends some urgent policies that could re-dress the anomalies and thereby promote legal and fair access to intellectual properties especially fostered through the power of education. In our conviction, this re-orientation ensures an African Renaissance enshrined in the African moral ethic informed by the philosophy of Ubuntu.

 

Key Words: Education, Intellectual Property Rights, Sustainable Development, Zimbabwe

 

The Influence of Kalanga on the Learning of IsiNdebele in Selected Schools of Bulilima District

By

Bhebe Cordial

cordbhebe@gmail.com/bhebecordie@cooltoad.com

 

Abstract

The purpose of the study is to investigate if Kalanga has an influence on the learning of IsiNdebele in pre-dominantly Kalanga speaking communities of Bulilima District in Zimbabwe. The research design on which the investigation is to be based is the descriptive survey. The sample is to consist of four heads of schools, twelve secondary teachers who majored in IsiNdebele and happen to teach it and one District Education Officer for Bulilima. Questionnaires and Interviews are to be used as key instruments in collecting data. Data is to be analysed using tables and descriptive statistics. The study hopes to establish that when languages are in contact, one way or the other, have an influence on each other. Although this influence somehow has a bearing on the learning and teaching processes, the study believes that it does not impact negatively on IsiNdebele national examinations. The study also observes that language is dynamic, but teachers and pupils of Bulilima District, believe that mixing Kalanga and IsiNdebele is not appropriate for language development as this denigrates Kalanga which is the mother-tongue of Bulilima communities.

 

 

A study to determine the extent to teachers are prepared to teach specific content items of Design and Technology in Zimbabwean schools

 

By Peter Kwaira

Department of Technical Education, University of Zimbabwe, Box Mp167, Harare

E-mail Address:  petkwaira@gmail.com

 

Theme(s) of interest: Curriculum Development  and implementation

 

 

Abstract

 

In Zimbabwe, the advent of Design and Technology Education (D&TE) and the progressive (problem-solving/posing) approach associated with it saw the demise of the traditional ways of teaching technical subjects like; Woodwork and Metalwork. Historically, these subjects have always been taught through the traditional approach where teachers would present pupils with problem situations and then proceed to provide solutions to those situations. For example, teachers would ask pupils to make a tea-tray and then proceed to stipulate the material(s), measurements, and the type(s) of joint(s) required to join the various components together. Pupils would then be required to simply follow instructions relating to laid down procedures. The teacher would give knowledge and the learner would be the recipient expected to retrieve relevant bits and pieces of information as required, especially in examinations. It is such a ‘banking concept’ of education that Freire (1972) has critiqued in his thesis; ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed’.

Being more progressive, the Design and Technology (D&T) approach resulted in the technical subjects being approached from a problem-solving orientation. In addition, today efforts are being made to introduce D&T as a subject in Zimbabwean schools. Therefore, the purpose of the study on which this paper is based was to determine the extent to which teachers were prepared and equipped to teach specific aspects of the proposed ‘A’ Level D&T Syllabus.

Forty five (45) teachers responded to a questionnaire and the results showed that they were not adequately prepared from their initial teacher training. There was a need to up-grade them in order for them to assis

 

 

 

 

 

 The Role of School Climate in Quality Assessment: A Case of Masvingo

Peri-urban Schools in Zimbabwe.

 

 

Abstract

 

 

Teachers’ effectiveness is enhanced by the whole school climate which includes the management style, the social environment, facilities, resources and interpersonal relationships. Reforms in the Zimbabwean education systems emphase skill based subjects and coursework within a difficult economic environment which may lead to difficulties in achieving the goals. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the role of the school climate in the quality of assessment in such a scenario. A qualitative paradigm and a descriptive survey design were chosen to realize the research objectives. Purposive sampling was used to select six schools from a district with a population of fifteen. Validated questionnaires and document analysis were used to collect relevant data from teachers and pupils of grades four to seven. Data were presented in descriptive and narrative forms and analysed thematically. The findings revealed that most school environments which included management and supervision systems were not conducive for effective teaching and learning therefore negatively affected the quality of assessment. It was therefore recommended that the government, stake holders and the school management systems work together in order  to minimize the challenges faced by institutions which negatively affect quality assessment.

 

Key Words:              Assessment; Climate; Effective; Management.

Sub theme:               Assessment  in Education

Presentation type:   Oral

 

Lokadhia Manwa    locadiamanwa@gmail.com

Great Zimbabwe University

 

 

 

 Paper Sub/Themes:               Gender Issues in Education/Management and Leadership

The glorification and epitomisation of patriarchy through sound:  An analysis of Zimbabwean Paul Matavire music songs’ lyrics

By Alfred H. Makura*

Abstract

The late Zimbabwe blind musician Paul “Dr Love” Matavire mesmerised his audience with a music genre whose lyrics addressed contemporary social issues particularly romantic ones. His music occupies a prominent place in Zimbabwe music history and continues to portray the normative values of an Afro-traditional music genre. Three of his late 1980s hits Dhiyabhorosi Nyoka (Diabolic Snake), Taurayi zvenyu (Just Speak please) and Tanga Wandida (Love me first) collectively glorify patriarchy while portraying women folk as subservient to the masculine gender. In Dhiyabhorosi Nyoka for instance, Paul matavire controversially uses Biblical wit to demonstrate the genesis of challenges besetting contemporary society as being rooted in Eve’s original sin. The gendered and ‘blame game’ perspective is further revealed in the lyrics of the other two songs where humour, sarcasm and satire characterize the projection. Using the narrative agency perspective, the paper attempts to show how music portrays and glorifies patriarchy through vocal characterisation. The lyrics in question have educational management implications which are discussed within the context of the analysis.

Key terms: males; school heads; leadership styles; leadership; management; primary school; case study; interview; Zimbabwe;

All correspondence and requests to:

Dr. Alfred Henry Makura

University of Fort Hare,

Teaching and Learning Centre, Henderson Hall

Alice Main Campus, Private Bag X1314,

Alice 5700, South Africa

Tel: +27 721021538 or      

+27 40 602 2700

Fax: +27 08660210543

E–mails: amakura@ufh.ac.za or

alfrednyandoro@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

Makwanya, Peter and Dick, Mathias: Lecturers, Zimbabwe Open University – Midlands Region.

Emails: kwanyas67@yahoo.com         or dickmts@gmail.com

Cell: 263 773 780 574

SUB – THEME

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS

Research Topic

Integrating Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Christianity in Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation processes.

ABSTRACT

This paper seeks to strike a balance between Indigenous knowledge systems and Christianity in the fight against climate change. Both systems are fundamentals in the lives of citizens of any country and they offer a great divide in terms of belief affiliation. Consciously and unconsciously, many people have been subscribing to the two systems since time immemorial. As such, their roles cannot simply be wished away or viewed as peripheral. These two critical attributes play a pivotal role in informing decisions regarding the conservation and management of knowledge systems. Without undermining the eclectic roles played by the environmental and technological experts, who, in most cases are not familiar with the traditional customs, beliefs, taboos and related practices aligned to conservation issues, we say integration rather than the sidelining of the local communities and their belief systems should be seriously considered. It is hoped that, by merging the two bodies in climate change adaptation and mitigation processes, the missing link, that we dearly need may be found. The research methodology is qualitative in nature. Techniques such as interviews would be used to solicit vital information from the chiefs, headmen, pastors, bishops and environmental experts in order to come up with an integrated approach. Approaches such as document analysis and critical discourse analysis will also be used to unmask the linguistic ambiguities and deconstruct ideological inclinations. These analytical approaches will be used in relation to ethnography of communication in order to evaluate the moral, cultural, ethical and socio-economic implications to the society.

KEY WORDS

Indigenous, eclectic, ethnography, adaptation, mitigation

 

 

MARRIED STUDENT`S ANXIETIES ABOUT THE RISK OF HIV/AIDS: A CASE OF GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

By

Emily Ganga: emilyganga@gmail.com

and

Nyaradzo Jinga: nyajinga@yahoo.com

Great Zimbabwe University, Faculty of Education

P. O. Box 1235, Masvingo

Zimbabwe

Abstract

In an effort to upgrade themselves and augment family income, a number of married woman have embarked on conventional university education leaving their husbands and children to continue with home chores during the lengthy semesters. Both the students and their spouses become vulnerable to HIV/AIDS due to exposure, prolonged separation periods and long distances apart. HIV/AIDS remains an insidious evil that has detrimental effects on any populace no matter what level of academic achievement. The conventional programmes that married women engage in tend to obstruct the intimacy between couples by prohibiting frequent conducts. This qualitative case study explored married female students’ anxieties about HIV risks over their husbands. Forty four (44) randomly selected married female students residing in one of the university hostels were involved in a focus group discussion in order to extract data for this study. Participants believed that their husbands were at risk of HIV/AIDS networks infection which eventually could be passed on to them. They experienced barriers in efforts to prevent infection due to cultural beliefs on issues such as use of condoms. There were fears that their husbands or vice-versa might decide to get tested secretly and receive anti-retroviral treatment without informing their partners till signs and symptoms of AIDS become evident on the unprotected spouse. Husbands or wives too may learn and embark on promiscuous activities that result in failure to remain intimate when they visit one another during the weekends or vacation time. Some young married women may also be tempted to engage in extra marital affairs due to envy and insufficient resources for subsistence at compass. Taking a juxtaposition of the situation, there seem to be lack of trust between couples staying away from each other. The students were afraid that the effects pandemic are sometimes disguised by drug usage and one may not know one’s sero- positivity until one becomes terminally ill. They suggested frequent testing and counselling for both. It was suggested that condom use be promoted between couples/more HIV/AIDS courses should be included within Faculty programmes as part of awareness where possible , couples should take up further studies at the same institution and more block release or part-time programmes so that couples have enough time with one another than convectional one’s should be availed in universities.

 

 

 

 

RITTAH KASOWE LECTURER ZIMBABWE OPEN UNIVERSITY E-mail ritakasowe@ hotmail.com

Theme Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

 

Topic: Men’ s practices in children’ s lives

 

Abstract

One of the major changes taking place in today’s world is  the position of women in the family. In Zimbabwe women, are joining the labour market in ever greater numbers with a corresponding need for more childcare places and long day kindergartens . Hence policy makers in response to the recommendations of the Nziramasanga Commision of In 2004 inline with the recommendations of the inquiry into education  have recognized the   need for equitable access to quality early childhood education to support the social needs of families and strengthen the foundations of lifelong learning for all children  by integration of various nursery schools, day care centres crèches and kindergartens into one formal curriculum the Early Childhood Development programme (ECD)  catering for pupils of 3-5 years age group

This study therefore seeks to gauge  the impact  the implementation of the  programme is being done vis a visa the guidelines of the Director, s Circular  number 12 of 2005and Statutory Instrument106 of 2005 in order to establish the extent to which improvements can be made in an effort to revamp the implementation process. In the study 38 randomly selected heads of schools, Teacher sin charge(TICS) and ECD teachers will be used as respondents. Data will be collected through questionnaires and interviews.  The main question being raised is what factors are affecting   the implementation  of the programme?

 

 

 

 

 

Thematic Area:  Children at risk .

Girl Child Network in Zimbabwe .An external Eagle eye.

BY  

GillietChigunwe. Lecturer Zimbabwe Open University

Anyway Katanha .lecturer Zimbabwe Open University   akatanhaa@gmail.com

Children are exposed to various forms of abuse due to a complex set of variables; top of the list is poverty. This article gives an in-depth external monitoring and evaluation of a community indigenous Non-Governmental organisation whose main thrust is to fight for the rights of the girl child in terms of education, health and other social basic needs in Zimbabwe .This paper examined the four main programmes being implemented by Girl Child Network (GCN), which are Education and Girls empowerment, Girls at Risk Unit, Advocacy and Lobby, and Information and Dissemination. The main question being addressed is whether the above mentioned programmes has led to  risk reduction and better management of sexually abused girls in Zimbabwe ? or it’s an amorphous set of programmes whose results needs a lot to be desired basing on the socio economic ,political, traditional and religious landscape in Zimbabwe? The analysed information was solicited from Staff members of the organisation, beneficiaries, and members of the community, responsible authorities and other stakeholders, using structured questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and related literature review. The analysis of information gathered from Rusape and Chihota rural areas where GCN conducts programmes, focused on the functions responsibilities, challenges and possible recommendations to improve GCN, s activities. The article shows that the issue of the Girl Child is not taken with the seriousness it deserves from some members of the society mainly because the Zimbabwean law is imbued with a lot of leniency to the children abusers hence GCN faced some challenges in implementing some of its programmes .The paper recommends the government to put in place stiffer penalties and empower NGOs like GCN to execute their duties without fear or favour this would lead to significant strides in addressing this humanitarian challenge whose statistics are alarmingly high. The Article further recommends the government and non-governmental organisations like GCN to adopt new policies by which will aggressively expand, address the development and implementation of programs mitigating the causes and consequences of Girl,s at Risk.

 

Key Words:

Girls at Risk,Empowerment,Girl Chid ,Abuse,Information dissemination.

 

 

 

 

Theme: Indigenous Knowledge.

 

Indigenoussay and understanding on Flooding as a Natural Disaster linked to Climate Change the case of Muzarabani in Zimbabwe.

 

Co-Author’s:  Ezra Pedzisai:Lecturer: Bindura University of Science Education .

Anyway   Katanha: lecturer: Zimbabwe Open University

 

Abstract  :

The main thrust of this research was to examine and determine the perception and understanding of the Indigenous (Vakorekore people) in Zimbabwe’s Dande Lowveld of Flooding as a natural disaster linked to climate change .The study made use of structured interviews to a total of 40 males 40 females to solicit data and information on local people’sperception on floods which have become a recurrent feature to Muzarabani ecological zone from the local people. Traditionalexperts, government officials and conventional experts. Data was also sought from published and un published papers.Indegenous knowledge used the following to predict the likelihood of floods in the Muzarabani area the birds ,s nest ,s levels ,traditional experts in the field of plant phenology and astronomy’s advice  and many others. The effects of floods felt by the communities understudy include death of livestock, crops, human beings, biodiversity and disrupted livelihood strategies. Respondent s from the research showed that the majority relied much on indigenous knowledge on flood prediction which is not scientifically proven. It was established that the communities believed the recurrent drought where a result of  the unsocial activities like adultery, incest which are very common which are against the Vakorekore custom., and the floods are a weep to modify people, behaviour in Muzarabani.Very few have interest on recent conventional information on floods and climate change.

To address the impacts of flooding in the Dande the Vakorekore resort to environmental migration ,use of savings ,hunting ,diversification, handouts from Non-Governmental Organisation,awareness campaigns ,rescue and emergency aid, information and dissemination from the government institutions .Of interest is the fact that there is a challenge on existing local and institutional strategies which have failed to recognize Indigenous Knowledge on Floods and Climate change let alone the fact that they are not sustainableThe villagers in the area understudy are prone to the climatic crisis worse still the most vulnerable being children, women and the aged ,The study recommends short and long-term policy changes on issues to do with indigenous knowledge ,climate change and floods.

.

Key Words: Environmental migration, Floods, IndigenousKnowledge ,Climate Change ,Livelihood,CopingStrategy, Vulnerable. Mitigation and Adaptation.

 

 

POVERTY: A HINDRANCE TO THE OPTIMAL FUNCTIONING OF GIRL LEARNERS’ COGNITIVE CAPACITY IN ZIMBABWE

 

Mrs.  Kudzai Chinyoka 

Great Zimbabwe University

Faculty of Education

Department of Educational Foundations

Email chinyokak@gmail.com

Tel   +263 773 551 922

 

Dr. Naraimsamy Naidu

Programme Manager: ECD (Foundation Phase)

University of South Africa (UNISA)

College of Education

Department of Teacher Education

Email naidun@unisa.ac.za

Tel:  + 27-012-4294755

 

ABSTRACT

 

This article examines the effects of poverty on the cognitive development of the girl child in Masvingo province, Zimbabwe. The qualitative phenomenological design was used with focus group discussions, interviews and observations as data collection instruments to fifteen (15) girl children and six (6) teachers in Masvingo province. With the prevailing economic hardships faced by the majority of the people in Zimbabwe since 1990, the number of girl children living in poverty is continually increasing and it has become a growing issue. Scarcity of resources by parents and guardians for schooling costs negatively affects the schooling of many girl children in Zimbabwe.  Even though the Millennium Development Goal number one (1) aims to eradicate poverty and hunger by 2015, some children continue to be faced with a lot of psychosocial challenges that are somehow perpetuated by the rising Total Consumption Poverty Line (TCPL) in Zimbabwe. This study established that poverty affects the girl child’s psychosocial development across multiple contexts including family, home, neighbourhood, and school and has more detrimental effects on socio-emotional functioning, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement. More girls than boys were noted to leave schools  early due to poverty-  related variables like,  repeated failure,  long distance to and from school,  odd jobs,  looking after siblings, lack of motivation, early marriage, poor academic achievement, teenage pregnancy and childbearing, poor mental and physical health, delinquent behaviour, stress, stigmatisation and marginalisation. This study recommends the introduction of Nutrition gardens, Home Based Rehabilitation (HBR) and sustainable development of both rural and urban communities. Collaborative work is also needed among Zimbabweans and stakeholders in revisiting the root causes of poverty.

 

Key words:   poverty, hindrance, cognitive development, phenomenological, girl child

 

 

 

 

Curriculum development and implementation: Factors contributing towards curriculum development in higher education: A case for Zimbabwe

By

Mupa Paul: Quality Assurance Co-ordinator:

Zimbabwe Open University

E-mail: mupapaul@gmail.com(Corresponding author)

ChabayaRaphinos Alexander: Regional campus director, ZOU

E-mail:raphinoschabaya@gmail.com

Chiome Chrispen: Lecturer in Educational leadership and Policy

E-mail:chrischiom@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract

Curriculum development is a key educational process that can boost the innovative capacity of a higher education institution. This study sought to investigate factors that guide curriculum development in higher education in Zimbabwe. It was prompted by continuous changes in the curriculum of higher education institutions which include universities, polytechnical colleges and teachers’ colleges. The study was qualitative by nature and employed the descriptive survey design. Open-ended questionnaire was used as the main data gathering instrument. The major findings of the study were that curriculum development in Zimbabwe is influenced by technological advancement, demands by students, society expectations, industry and commerce, globalisation, partnerships by institutions, the need for professionalism in business, academic research to revamp the economy, competition among institutions and government expectations, among others.

Key terms: curriculum development; innovation; higher education; curriculum change

 

 

 

 

 

Theme: Child development

From Froebelian rationalism to empiricism: Transforming theories of childhood education into practice through establishing the impact of ECD experiences on student performance at grade one level

                                                    By

Mupa Paul: Quality Assurance Co-ordinator:Zimbabwe Open University, Masvingo Region, P.O. Box 1210, MasvingoE-mail:mupapaul@gmail.com Cell No. +263773552138: (Corresponding author)

ChabayaRaphinos Alexander: MasvingoRegional campus director, ZOU P.O.Box 1210, Masvingo: E-mail: raphinoschabaya@gmail.com: Cell No. +263772369969

Chiome Chrispen: Lecturer in Educational leadership and Policy, ZOU, Masvingo Region: P.O.Box 1210, Masvingo. E-mail: chrischiom@yahoo.ca: Cell No. +263772905274

 

Abstract

This article considers the possibility that one of the defining characteristics of Education, as it relates to children in their early years, is its epistemological break with Froebel rationalist forms of knowledge and its embrace of empiricism and positivism.The study was qualitative and designed to establish the effect of the ECD programme on pupil performance at grade one level. It aimed at highlighting ECD pedagogy that enhance effective teaching of early graders. The purposeful sample used consisted of four primary schools in Chivi,Masvingo Province and involved four teachers and eight pupils from schools. For data collection the interview, document analysis and field notes were used.                                                                                                                                          To analyse data, emergent categories were used and the results of the study confirmed that exposure to ECD programme enhances pupil performance at grade one level. Teachers favour to teach pupils who have done the ECD programme because they have the base upon which they can build. Major recommendations were that ECDteachers should employ empiricist strategies of teaching. It was also recommended that the Ministry of Education should equip and train ECD educators with pedagogical skills. It was further suggested that heads should supervise ECD centres so that the graduates are correctly socialised for formal education.

Key words: rationalism; empiricism; pedagogy; early childhood development; education

 

 

Theme: Gender Issues in Education:

Navigating marginality: Reclaiming and understanding the status and experiences of African women who occupy leadership and management roles in African organisations

By

ChabayaOwence: E-mail:chabayaowence@gmail.com/ Owence.chabaya@ul.ac.za

 

Mupa Paul: E-mail:mupapaul@gmail.com(Corresponding Author)

&

Chiome Chrispen:E-mail:chrischiom@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract

Women need to break through the glass ceilings in order to navigate marginality. Governments, businesses, trade unions and women’s organizations have devoted much thought and energy to overcoming the attitudinal and institutional discrimination that bars women from certain jobs and hinders theircareer development, while the commitment to fight gender discrimination is renewed periodically at international conferences. Yet, many of the results fall short of expectations. Real obstacles remain, and these are often rooted in the way work itself is organized or in the challenges that face women who try to reconcile work and family commitments. Women are still concentrated in the most precarious forms of work throughout the world and breaking through the “glass ceiling” still appears elusive for all but a select few. Women hold a mere 1 to 3 per cent of top executive jobs in the largest corporations around the world. Qualitative research was done to establish strategies and opportunities by women to break the glass ceilings that affect their statuses in different organisations. Interviews were used to gather data from women in management positions in the education department in Masvingo Province. Purposeful sampling was done to select 10 women leaders. The study recommends creation of positive attitudes towards women, minimising gender stereotypes; crafting policies that promote gender equity, among others.

Key terms: leadership; management; marginality; glass ceilings

 

 

 

Theme: HIV and AIDS Management, Prevention and Sexuality Education

 

Invigorating HIV and AIDS prevention through addressing to poverty and gender inequalities among young women: A case for Masvingo Urban

 

                                                                           By

Mupa Paul: Quality Assurance Coordinator: Zimbabwe Open University

E-mail:mupapaul@gmail.com (Corresponding author)

 

ChabayaOwence: ChabayaOwence: E-mail:chabayaowence@gmail.com/ Owence.chabaya@ul.ac.za

 

ChabayaRaphinos Alexander:  Masvingo Regional campus director: ZOU

E-mail:raphinoschabaya@gmail.com

Abstract

This study sought to explore the perspectives of young women in Masvingo with the aim of better informing them on HIV prevention. Focus group discussions and interviews were used to explore issues relating to HIV prevention. An inductive content analysis identi?ed emerging themes and patterns in the participants’ conversations.Thestudy revealed that, althoughyoungwomenwereinformedandmotivatedto prevent HIV, poverty and inequality were signi?cant barriers, limiting their power to protect themselves. The research adds evidence to the current argument that failure to address the disempowering effects of poverty and gender inequality limits the effectiveness of current HIV prevention for young women. HIV prevention must now address poverty and gender vulnerabilities, promoting a protective environment, rather than focusing on in?uencing individual sexual behaviour.

Keywords: Women, HIV, Poverty, Gender, Sexual behaviour, Gender inequalities

 

Theme: Assessment in Education

Peer assessment in higher education: The roadmap for developing employability skills in potential job seekers

By

ChabayaOwence, Dr: E-mail:chabayaowence@gmail.com/ Owence.chabaya@ul.ac.za

 

Mupa Paul: E-mail:mupapaul@gmail.com(Corresponding Author)

&

ChabayaRaphinos Alexander: E-mail:raphinoschabaya@gmail.com

Abstract

The focus of the study was on the assessment of students’ attitudes towards both being assessed by and assessing other students’ work.Concerns about graduate employment issues, the world over, suggest that employers are concerned by the lack of employability skills exhibited by entry-level job applications. It is also suggested that employers consider it the responsibility of educational institutions to develop and sharpen such skills. The current study seeks to identify peer assessment as a potential strategy for developing employability skills and aims to examine, from a students’ perspective, the process of introducing peer assessment into higher education teaching programmes. Data were gathered from a sample of undergraduate students following a semi-structured interview. The study found that students expressed a positive attitude towards peer assessment but had concerns relating to their capability to assess peers and to the responsibility associated with assessing peers. Students felt that peer assessment would raise standards in higher education and equip graduates with the needed employability skills. The study recommends that peer assessment should be adopted as regular practice on undergraduate programmes wishing to equip students with a complete repertoire of employment-relevant skills.

Keywords: peer assessment; higher education; employability skills; teaching programmes

 

Theme: Leadership and management

Visionary leadership for management of innovative higher educationinstitutions: Leadership trajectories in a changingenvironment

 

By

Mupa Paul: Quality Assurance Coordinator: Zimbabwe Open University

E-mail:mupapaul@gmail.com (Corresponding author)

 

ChabayaOwence: ChabayaOwence: E-mail:chabayaowence@gmail.com/ Owence.chabaya@ul.ac.za

 

 

ChabayaRaphinos Alexander:  Masvingo Regional campus director: ZOU

E-mail:raphinoschabaya@gmail.com

 

Abstract

The study sought to explore the paths that leadership can take to meet innovative changes in higher education institutions.It was prompted by ICT changes, the demand for e-learning, introduction of new courses, among others. The kind of paths that leadership should follow to meet such changes is the object of this paper. The study was qualitative by nature and employed the descriptive survey design. Open-ended questionnaire was used as the main data gathering instrument. A convenience sample of 40 lecturers and 170 students was made. The major findings of the study were that the transformational leadership path equips leaders with skills to manage change and innovation. Creating an organisational work culture is a useful path to take as well as making the organisation a learning organisation where everyone is a learner. The need for resource support, introduction of ICT and creating a conducive climate for innovation are useful paths.

Key terms: leadership trajectories; management; innovativeprogrammes; change; visionary leadership; higher education institutions

 

 

 

 Equity Intricacies in Epistimological Access: The complexity ofdiverse teaching& learning Styles

Lindi Mabope &         Mosimaneotsile Mohlake

Medunsa Campus      Turfloop Campus

University of Limpopo

South Africa

Abstract:

Ensuring physical access to quality higher education for social equity can be easily attended to through the availability of qualified lecturers, infrastructure and funding.  However, intellectual access to the same on the part of learners can prove challenging given the diverse nature of learning styles among students.  What compounds the situation is the universal reality of lecturers being not trained teachers but rather trusted with the teaching responsibility on the basis of merit.  It is in this context that the desired ideal intellectual access to quality education for quality graduates complicates the need for equity in terms of fairly meeting each learner at the point of  his/her individual idiosyncratic educational needs.  This paper will present results of a survey tool on “Teacher as Leaders” AJ Kinicki& CA Schriesheim conducted among students at the Medunsa& Turfloop Campuses of the University of Limpopo, South Africa.  The findings of the paper will give lecturers the occasion to self-introspect with regard to their individual pedagogic practices as leaders in the tertiary teaching and learning context.

 

Key words: Epistemological Access and Teaching & Learning Styles

 

Words: 196

 

 

Peer counselling in Zimbabwean secondary schools

 

Regis Chireshe

Department of Psychology of Education

University of South Africa

chirer@unisa.ac.za & chireshe@yahoo.co.uk

 

The study sought to establish the status of peer counselling in Zimbabwean secondary schools as perceived by school teachers. A descriptive survey design was used. An open-ended questionnaire was completed by 26 secondary school teachers who were enrolled for a Bachelor’s degree in secondary education at a state university in Zimbabwe. Fourteen were male while 12 were female. The data was thematically analysed. The results revealed that most of the secondary schools from which the respondents came from did not have peer counsellors. They mentioned peer counsellors in the form of peer educators from HIV and AIDS related organisations or Non Governmental Organisations who sometimes visited secondary schools. The few teachers whose schools had peer counsellors revealed that the peer counsellors were selected on the basis of their good characters. The peer counsellors were involved in HIV and AIDS and related issues such as unwanted pregnancy, sexual abuse, drug abuse, problem solving and overcoming peer pressure. They also entertained other students through dramas, poems and presentations. Although the peer counsellors had some HIV and AIDS training, they were reported to be lacking in peer helping training. The challenges the peer counsellors faced included peer counselling underrating, resistance and discouragement from other students, lack of faith by other students and shortage of time. The teachers wished the peer counsellors could receive training in managing depression, study skills, listening skills, ethical issues and managing disputes among students. Recommendations were made.

 

 

 

LECTURER EVALUATION BY STUDENTS AT AN INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING IN ZIMBABWE: AN ANALYSIS OF COURSE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRES

Sub-Theme:   Assessment in Education

                                                                                                                                           

By

Excellent Chireshe

Great Zimbabwe University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies

Email: excellentchireshe@yahoo.com                                     

The study sought to find out how students rated lecturers in different courses taught in one department at a University in Zimbabwe. The study was based on an assessment of course evaluation questionnaires that students completed in the two semesters of 2011. A total of 12 courses, randomly selected across different academic levels, were assessed. Both closed and open-ended questions were taken into consideration.

Tables were used to summarise the data on the evaluation questionnaires. The study revealed that in some cases there was no consistency between responses to fixed-response items and responses to open-ended items. The overall rating of lecturers by students ranged from fair to outstanding. Both positive and negative aspects associated with the lecturers were noted. On the positive side, students applauded lecturers for commitment to their work, punctuality, clarity of explanation, fair grading (marking), being considerate and respectful of students. On the negative side, some lecturers, though overall rated as fair, were said to spend a lot of time on social/personal issues, thereby leaving very limited time for the real business of the day, being myopic and not tolerating divergent views, failing to bring the subject matter to the level of the students, showing favouritism, being inconsiderate and treating students with disdain. It was concluded that course evaluation questionnaires were insightful and that they afforded students the opportunity to express their views and at the same time providing data useful for the improvement in both teaching and learning. Recommendations for the improvement of in the teaching and learning environment were made.

 

 

 

Searching the future in the past: Can African Indigenous leadership practices inform modern school leadership? Evidence from South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Lesotho

VitallisChikoko

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Email: chikokov@ukzn.ac.za

The forefathers and mothers who built the Great Zimbabwe, the pyramids of Giza, and taught algebra and trigonometry to the Greek mathematicians would not have scored these achievements if they were not great people. The Monomotapa kingdom, Timbuktu, Mapungubwe and others are sharp evidence of great leadership. But today, Africa is often characterised by such ills as poverty, high unemployment levels, HIV/AIDS, poor education, poor planning, abuse of power, lack of accountability and apathy.  Where is that leadership that can mobilise us to deal with our tough issues? In this paper, I report work in progress on evidence from four Southern African countries regarding what can be said to be African indigenous leadership practices in the selected communities and how such knowledge can inform school leadership today. Data were collected through interviews with families, village, community, and clan leaders. An extensive literature review of school leadership today was also done. Findings show that a sense of belonging for all, communalism, participative decision-making, dialogue, consultation, shared leadership, active involvement towards family and community welfare by all, high regard for knowledge and skills and great focus on achievement make up some of the key features of African indigenous leadership. We tentatively conclude that the future of African education lies in our ability to tap from the great leadership of the past. Modern school leadership practices have a lot to learn from African indigenous leadership.

 

 

Gender issues in jazz education and performance

 

Nolwazi Ndamase

Department of Arts and Culture Education

Faculty of Education

Walter Sisulu University

MTHATHA

nmcubuse@yahoo.com / nndamase@wsu.ac.za

 

 

This paper investigates the issue of gender disparity in South African jazz education and performance.  Since its inception jazz has been seen as a world of men.  The popular claim that jazz is an all-inclusive genre is generally found in books or essays that fail completely to mention women.  This paper recognises and documents the contribution of women in the South African jazz industry.  The aim is to interrogate the gender barriers that these women have come across and how they have traversed them.  Their success stories will provide grounding and parameters for theory and practice in jazz education.  The research design employed in the paper is a case study and purposive sampling was used to select the population.  Data was collected through the use of interviews, observations, journals and books.  The paraxial philosophy guided the development of principles for inclusive jazz education.  The masculine image of jazz has always been a hindrance for women who aspire to be jazz musicians.  The gender stereotype of musical instruments is another limiting factor for women.  The paper suggests that the best methods in music teaching are those that involve students in significant experiences where music instruction seeks a link between school music experience and the music participation outside the school. The task of the institutions’ music program should be to create a favourable musical environment, one in which every pupil can undergo a maximum musical growth consistent with his (or her) ability and interests.

 

 

 

THE IRONY OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING AND WOMEN

EMPOWERMENT IN LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT POSITIONS

AT INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING

 

Dr. Nonceba Nolundi Mabovula: Walter Sisulu University

Nelson Mandela Drive Campus: Mthatha, South Africa

nmabovula@yahoo.co.uk

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

Although there have been significant changes in women’s increased representation in recent years, it is believed that women who succeed in obtaining top management posts in institutions of higher education still have to deal with unfair barriers.  Anyone associated with tertiary education today would be familiar with the global push towards national and international quality control and accountability. The central concerns for leadership are national competitiveness, universities as enterprises, quality and effectiveness. This paper focuses on one female leader’s perceptions and experiences of leadership in her place of work. The advantages and disadvantages of such a small case study are discussed. Using a phenomenological approach, I felt that these barriers need to be more carefully explored and understood. The results obtained indicate that women are in a life-world in which, apart from the general experiences shared with their male counterparts, are exposed to many other forms of discrimination. Some of these are subtle, and result from years of socialisation into perceived gender role expectations.

 

Keywords:

 

University, management, leadership, women, higher education, female occupation, gender equity.

 

 

 

An analysis of the extent to which staff division of labour in primary schools reflect gender sensitivity: the case of Masvingo urban.

Dekeza Clyton

Great Zimbabwe University, Faculty of Education, Educational Foundations Dept. E-mail: dekezaclys@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract

This study was done to determine the level of gender awareness in the way primary schools operate. The study was motivated by the demand for gender equality in all spheres of life made by a myriad of social groups. One of the Millennium Development Goals is also clear on the need for gender equality. It was against this backdrop that the researcher embarked on this study with the view to find out if gender advocacy is yielding results. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design where a sample of three primary schools was randomly selected from a population of ten primary schools in Masvingo urban. The data was collected through documentary analysis, interviews and observations. The liberal and radical feminist perspectives informed the study. The researcher established that the administration of the sampled schools was dominated by men. Moreover, female teachers were found to be concentrated in lower grades while upper grades were dominated by male teachers. Furthermore, secretaries and office cleaners were mainly females while men dominated as grounds staff. There was no school with a school policy on gender sensitivity and the responsible authorities ratify the appointments of school heads and deputies. On the basis of the findings, the researcher recommended that the school administrators should allocate teachers to classes on merit rather than on gender basis. Moreover, primary schools should formulate school gender policy from the national gender policy to guide their operations.   

 

 

 

Intact or in tatters? The nature of discipline in Masvingo urban secondary schools, Zimbabwe

Hlupo Takesure

Great Zimbabwe University, Faculty of Education, Educational Foundations Dept

E-mail: takesurehlupo@gmail.com 

Abstract

The study sought to establish the state of discipline of students in five Masvingo urban secondary schools. Three of the schools are located in high density suburb, one in low density and the last one just on the outskirts of Masvingo city. The researcher used the stratified random sampling targeting 60 pupils from each school to make a total of 300 pupils. The researcher used purposive sampling in identifying 5 school heads and 5 senior staff members per school to make a total of 30.  The researcher used a descriptive survey and administered questionnaires as well as interviews. It was established that gone are the days when discipline was a global village responsibility where the ethos was to develop a well rounded individual full of Africannes(ubuntu). Though teachers agreed that caning was outlawed, they unanimously consented that it was being used, an indication that schools still grapple with some reprehensive offences. 75{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} indicated that the major cause was rooted in disorderly families.  80{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} attacked the use of cell phones as a major contributing factor in disciplinary cases. The location of the school had a bearing on the spate of disciplinary problems. It is suggested that the problem of discipline in schools be looked at from all different angles, policy-makers, parents, teachers as well as students. In extreme cases, referral to reformatory schools can be provided.

 

 

 

Dicey or lucrative investment? Views of university students on the rationale of pursuing higher education in Zimbabwe.

 

Kufakunesu Moses

Great Zimbabwe University, Faculty of Education, Dept of Educational Foundations

E-mail: moseskufakunesu@gmail.com

and

Professor Garfield Bester

University of South Africa, College of Education,

E-mail:  besteg@unisa.ac.za

Abstract

The study was an endeavour to scrutinise the views and sentiments of university students in defence of their decision to pursue higher education. From a population of 400 Bachelor of Education degree in-service students, a sample of 80 respondents was selected using the stratified random sampling method. The stratification was done on the basis of the students’ areas of specialisation. The phenomenological research design was employed with questionnaires, and focus group discussions as data gathering instruments. Conceptually, the study was anchored on some of the psychological principles of Jung, Frankl and Maslow. Apart from qualitative thematic data analysis, a chi-squared test was conducted in a bid to further unravel the possible association between the students’ views and variables such as age, gender and marital status. The generality of the respondents acknowledged that a myriad of countervailing variables have to be surmounted in one’s quest to attain a higher education qualification. However, the research participants vehemently intimated that their decision to pursue higher education was, among other things, fuelled by an unremitting determination to satiate their internally embedded quest for self-actualisation. The researchers attributed such sentiments to the human transcendent function and the will to meaning. On the basis of the research findings, the researchers recommended that allied studies be conducted by other researchers with respondents such as college students and secondary school learners in a bid to shed more light on this subject.

 

 

Transformational Leadership by School Management Teams in Selected Schools of Mthatha Education District.

By

Dumani Petros Tyebileyo & Mabovula Nonceba Nolundi

Walter Sisulu University, Nelson Mandela Campus, Mthatha

 

Sub Theme: Leadership and management.

This article focuses on the leadership role of school management teams (SMT) in selected schools in Mthatha Education District. The Department of Education’s strategic policies after 1994 democratic elections in South Africa changed their focus from being racially divided to a democratically all inclusive education system. Such changes were brought about by the introduction of many education laws such as the South African Schools Act No 84 of 1996; The National Education Policy Act No.27 of 1996; Personnel Administration Measures (PAM); The National Norms and Standards for Schools Funding and many more. The challenges that face the management of schools during this new democratic era seem to be mounting. Four schools selected purposefully from Mthatha Schools were used for a project that was aimed at marshalling support for the leadership provision in schools. The views of SMTs in these four schools were probed and solicited by using questionnaires. Four themes were used by the researcher to collect the relevant data. During the data analysis, what emerged form the data generated through the four themes seemed to be in disjuncture to the propositions of the education legislation and literature. In an attempt to overcome these challenges of leadership provision in school, transformational leadership was chosen by the researcher as the most appropriate fundamental approach that can be used to change the scenario.

 

Keywords: Leadership, Transformation Theory, School Management Teams, School Principal, Deputy Principal, Head of division, South African Schools Act, teachers, School Governing Body, Transactional Theory,

 

 

1 Chigunwe Gilliet and 2 Katanha Anyway

Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, P Bag 984, Bindura, Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Sciences, P Bag 984, Bindura, Zimbabwe

Phone (263) 773 274 013,

Email: gchigunwe@gmail.com

 

Conference Theme: Access, Quality and Equity in Education for Sustainable Development in Southern Africa.

Paper Category: Inclusive Education

Paper title: Public and Private Universities: Bridging the Gap in the Provision of

Appropriate Sanitation

 

Abstract

Quality and relevance of higher education in Africa can be strengthened by universities’ contributions to development policies and their capability to lobby for environmental sustainability for all. The United Nations report asserts that 2.6 billion people- 40 percent of the world’s population have no access to toilets and sanitation (Millennium Development Goals Report, 7 July 2011, Geneva). This means people with disabilities and poor in Africa are among this population. Zimbabwe had an outbreak of cholera and typhoid pandemic from 2010 to early 2012. Our desktop survey revealed that those who were mostly affected were the poor and people with disabilities. People with disabilities and the poor are in most cases left out in accessing safe and appropriate sanitation facilities in Zimbabwe.  Universities in Southern Africa can play an important role in meeting challenges we face as nations in issues of development and sustainability. This can be achieved if Private and State Universities break the barriers and make a collaborative approach in including the excluded. Universities are heartbeats of knowledge thus play a very important role in solving community and national problems. They can ensure an inclusive and sustainable tomorrow by instilling an etho of equal participation among students who are the future adults. More so, Private and Public Universities can influence key stakeholders to put people at the centre of their country’s ideologies and through community consultation as well as collaborative approaches, device appropriate technologies that enable vulnerable groups to access safe sanitation facilities. While state universities play an equally important role, researchers’ experience is that they fall short of too much State influence in their economy and to some extend their curriculum is influenced by ideologies of the ruling elite. Such  ideologies have been observed to leave out basic needs of marginalized people. Private universities can utilize their autonomy by bridging this knowledge gap in the form of capacity building and development of trial sanitation technologies that are inclusive. In such, both Private and Public Universities can augment each other on issues of lobbying so that they reach a common goal with State on issues of inclusive sanitation and policies. Through  research conferences and workshops, universities can share and find ways to develop appropriate, indegenious  sanitation technologies that is inclusive to all.

 

 

 SUB-THEME: HIV AND AIDS MANAGEMENT, PREVENTION AND SEXUALITY.

 

TOPIC:

UTILISING CHILDREN’S LITERATURE IN HIV AND AIDS MANAGEMENT, PREVENTION AND SEXUALITY EDUCATION: AN ANALYSIS OF SHIMMER CHINODYA’S A TALE OF TAMARI

 

ANNA CHITANDO, ZIMBABWE OPEN UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE, annachitando@yahoo.com

 

 

ABSTRACT

Children’s and young adult literature is an important part of literature. Regrettably, it does not get adequate attention. Many university Departments of Language and/or Literature do not offer full courses on this critical subject. This state of affairs needs to be resolved, particularly when one considers the significance of children’s and young adult literature in any given society. This article argues that teaching children’s literature in institutions of learning will go a long way in educating society on HIV and AIDS management, prevention and sexuality. It contends that the book, A Tale of Tamari defies patriarchal tendencies that put women and girl-children in situations of hopelessness, mainly in contexts of HIV and AIDS. A Tale of Tamari has been singled out because of its relevance to the topic under discussion. It projects a version that challenges retrogressive masculinity that threatens the well-being of women and girl-children. While the article concentrates on this Chinodya’s A Tale of Tamari, it also draws from other literary texts that have a bearing to the subject. The article explores how authors utilise children’s literature to educate society on issues of HIV and AIDS. The study employs literary analysis as its main method of research. Informed by the Africana Womanist theoretical framework, the article argues that children’s  must be promoted as it seeks to promote better relationships between women and men. In the first section, the article revisits the problem of defining children’s and young adult literature. The following section is a description of children’s and youth literature in Zimbabwe. This is followed  a section that analyses A Tale of Tamari, in the light of HIV and AIDS management, prevention and sexuality education. The concluding section offers some suggestions on how to further strengthen the discipline of children’s literature.

 

 

TEACHING MATHEMATICS TO VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS: The case of Margareta Hugo Schools for the Blind

By Louise Stanley MADUNGWE, E-mail address: ldsmadungwe@gmail.com

Great Zimbabwe University

Abstract

This study examines how mathematics is taught to visually impaired students, which culminates in them not advancing with the subject beyond Ordinary level. Current legislation as enshrined in the Disabled Persons Act No.5 (1992) requires that all students with visual impairment be given equal opportunities in education and employment as their sighted peers. The study was conducted at Margareta Hugo Schools for the Blindwhere  students learn in an inclusive setting. Some teachers were interviewed and lessons were observed. It was noted that the available special equipment was either not enough, or needed repairing. Most teachers had not undergone special training and were being assisted by a specialist teacher. The students seemed to have developed a negative attitude to mathematics since the majority never make it at ‘O’ level. The paper advocates for a concerted effort in assisting the schools to acquire special equipment for the visually impaired and to ensure provision of backup technical services for the equipment. There is dire need to motivate students into liking the subject mathematics.

Success in arts education – introducing the dialogical lifelong learning model

 

Author:  Dr Zoliswa Twani

Affiliation: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University – Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Contact details: zo.twani@nmmu.ac.za; +27 761304758

Sub-theme: Education and Development

 

Abstract

This article seeks to introduce the dialogical lifelong learning model while critiquing traditional rationales for teaching.  The problem with traditional approaches is that they have largely focused almost exclusively on the idea of aesthetic arts education, defining education as having a formal or expressive artistic essence (in the case of the arts)  While formal training and traditional approaches are still relevant, they exclude informal methods of acquisition of knowledge and skills. In contrast current viewpoints are holistic and make it clear that ideas are not always strictly emerging and operating in a formal environment and through formal education in an institution, but extra-curricula relationships pertaining to arts education’s function in society and its value. Using the narrative enquiry method, stories and examples were collected and analysed to describe and explain how the recommended model provides relevant response to acquisition of knowledge and skills, for the expressed needs of the learners. Findings suggest that the dialogical lifelong learning model puts emphasis on learning with, from and alongside the learners through action and reflection. It concludes that the socio – cultural aspects of arts education are considered and the approach is suitable for anyone in any context, formally or informally.

 

Keywords: dialogical lifelong learning; arts education; formal education; extra-curricula; narrative enquiry method and action and reflection.

 

 

   .

 Early childhood development (ECD) teachers’ conceptions and implementation of the child-centred approach to teaching Science

 

 

Rose M. Mugweni

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O. Box 1235 Masvingo, Zimbabwe

Cell: +263 773249806

Email: ro.mugweni@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated ECD teachers’ conceptions of the child-centred approach and strategies they adopt to implement it when teaching environmental science in infant classes.  A descriptive survey was conducted to investigate the research problem. Information from the teachers was sourced via a questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents and lesson observations. Stratified random sampling was used to come up with a sample of 30 ECD teachers in five primary schools within a 25 kilometre radius of Masvingo City.  The study found out that the child-centred approach to teaching science in ECD classes was not being effectively implemented. A number of constraints which rendered implementation of the child-centred approach to teaching science in ECD classes ineffective were unravelled. All the teachers indicated that large classes, lack of sufficient resources, teachers’ insufficient knowledge of the approach and lack of conducive learning environments in ECD classes militated against effective implementation of a child-centred approach to teaching science. The study recommended that there is need for regular staff development workshops. ECD teachers should be provided with enough teaching and learning resources. There is need for continuous monitoring of the child-centred approach to ensure its effective implementation to teaching science in ECD classes. A system should be developed and operationalised where samples of media improvised by some of the ECD teachers are forwarded to Audio Visual Services for mass production so that all schools in the country benefit from the creation of innovative teachers. Lastly, it was recommended that the teacher-pupil ratio should be reduced from 1 teacher to 40 pupils to manageable classes of say 1 teacher to 30 pupils for ECD classes.

 

 

 

Sub-Theme: Gender Issues in Education

 

Understanding the social and institutional factors related to the retention and progression of selected female academics in four higher education institutions in Zimbabwe

 

Moffat Chitapa Tarusikirwa Ph.D.

Senior Lecturer, Zimbabwe Open University, Harare, Zimbabwe.

E-mail: mctarusikirwa@justice.com or mctarusikirwa@gmail.com

Abstract

Women’s citizenship in Academia is by far still very low in high level management ranks. The pattern of representation is still low with very little change over time (Perumal, 2003). There is persistent under representation of women in higher education management jobs in Zimbabwe and elsewhere on a global level. The problem of gender equity seems to persist despite many pieces of legislation in the various countries and the supporting institutions in the form of courts and law enforcement agents. Women in higher education (HE) experience a wide range of challenges and barriers to appointment and advancement. In my recent study in Zimbabwean universities, I found out that the Zimbabwean university workplace is still a male dominated space and women still experience challenges such as: balancing work and marriage, perceived sexual harassment, stereotyping, under representation in management ranks, lack of information on careers and career development, marginalization, imbalances in the work load and the need to constantly prove themselves. Other challenges included, cultural barriers, in particular strong patriarchy, division of labour along gender, ethnic, and class lines, institutional level formal policies and informal practices and strategies. Furthermore, there are also issues of positions of power in the organization, organizational structure, socialization in early childhood, exclusion of women from the old boy network, lack of mentors, unavailability of funds for research and publications. Some women have a problem in pursuing a double career that is if a woman is married to a professional man; patriarchy demands that the husband’s career comes first. Hence women spend time moving from place to place following the husband’s career (see Walby; 1998; Haralambos and Holborn, 1991; Moorosi, 2007; Aisenberg and Harrington, 1988). Most Zimbabwean universities still have a culture of men leadership, the image of a leader is still that of a male and the prevailing culture is that of promotion by merit of a history of research, writing and publication (see Ashby, 1964; Gaidzanwa, 2007; Maunde, 2003; Thomas, 1990). A qualitative research approach was employed for data gathering. The sample size was 20 and interpretive thematic content analysis was used for data analysis.

 

Key words: Gender, Gender equity, Women and equity, Higher education, Women faculty/ academics, Management.

 

 

THE IMPACT OF HIV AND AIDS EDUCATION ON STUDENTS AT GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY

Gamuchirai Tsitsi Ndamba (Mrs.)

ndambagt@gmail.com

Tel: +263 39 252720

Cell: +263 777 128992

Rose M. Mugweni (Mrs.)

ro.mugweni@gmail.com

Lovemore Chirobe (Mr.)

lovechenge@yahoo.com

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O. Box 1235 Masvingo

ZIMBABWE

 

Sharayi Chakanyuka (Dr)

cherry1146@gmail.com

University of Swaziland

 

Corresponding author: ndambagt@gmail.com

THE IMPACT OF HIV AND AIDS EDUCATION ON STUDENTS AT GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY

Abstract

The study sought to determine Bachelor of Education (B Ed) Pre-Service students’ views on the impact of the HIV and AIDS Education course they had done at the Great Zimbabwe University. Thirty students out of a class of 94 were purposively selected to respond to 8 open questions to which they supplied qualitative responses. Findings from the study revealed that students immensely benefitted from the course in that they immediately practised safe sexual behaviour and that they were able to conduct effective AIDS Education lessons during teaching practice in primary schools but they felt there were insufficient materials both for their use and that of pupils. The study recommends that all students in the university take a course in AIDS Education and that the University should produce a teaching methodology textbook as well as materials for pupils at primary school level.

 

Challenges in Adult Education in rural areas of Limpopo Province in South Africa

Abstract

Rakoma MM

University of South Africa

Rakommm@unisa.ac.za

 

Limpopo has been identified as a province characterised by high levels of illiteracy that cause unemployment and poverty. However, many adults do not participate in Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) programmes, while others drop out in high numbers. This study sought information on the situational, institutional, dispositional and informational factors affecting participation in ABET. The research design was a phenomenology. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 30 educators and 60 learners. The findings revealed that situational obstacles include poverty and cultural factors related to gender. Institutional issues were related to the location of the centres, funding and irrelevant programme content. Dispositional factors included lack of confidence of participants aggravated by negative perceptions on ABET by communities. Finally, informational factors comprised poor marketing of the programmes. The study posits that ABET programmes need to be reviewed and be tailored to the needs of rural communities in Limpopo. Concerted efforts should be made by government; non-governmental organisations and the private sector to facilitate provision of relevant ABET programmes.

Key words: Adult learners, Adult Basic Education and Training, learning barriers, adult learner dropout.

 

 

 

Theme; Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa.

Sub-theme; Leadership and management

Should school heads be leaders, managers or both? A case study of Bulawayo government secondary schools.

 

The study sought to explore the type of skills needed by government secondary school heads in order for them to be effective. Hence the study examined whether school heads could be effective if they employed either leadership skills, management skills or if they employed both skills. The main purpose of the study was to establish how any of the skills mentioned above could boost productivity in government secondary schools. The study was carried out in government secondary schools in Bulawayo. Only schools’ performance at O’level was used as a measure of academic performance of the schools. The sample was made up of 215 respondents drawn from the secondary schools, heads of schools, District officers and other key informants in the education system like BSPZ co-ordinators and the newly appointed secondary school inspectors. Document analysis, observation, questionnaire, interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data under the following themes; leadership skills and tasks, management skills and tasks and the concepts of change, motivation, organisational culture and organisational structure. The assessment of school administration revealed transformation in the task with institutions gradually moving away from concentrating on day to day neat management tasks towards focusing on a unique, situational designed and visionary approach to school management which requires more leadership qualities .  Interviews of education officers revealed that, whilst all government schools were guided by government policy, policy was not meant to kill the individual flair of heads. The focus group discussions revealed that leadership was needed in education as an answer to the dynamic and turbulent environment. The discussions revealed that with the ever changing times it was the flexible leader who would be able to identify strategies that would take advantage of the changing environment; the strategies that would go in line with the globalization trends. Thus most respondents believed that heads of schools could use leadership skills to create competitive advantage and uniqueness of schools yet the issue of how policy could be successfully woven into heads’ plans remained debatable.

The study therefore recommended that schools as business organizations needed leaders who clearly understood their role in the school production process.

 

  • Lillie Beth Hadebe

CE[UZ], BED[UZ] ,MED[UZ],PGDM[NUST].

lbhadebe@yahoo.co.uk   0712881744

 

 

 

 

 Sub-Theme:    Teacher Education

Topic:              ‘ If I carry the disease, how do I infect my students

Type of presentation: Oral presentation

Presenter & contact details: Maryna Roodt. Lecturer: English

School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa.

Tel: 082 2025 167 (Cell)         & 051 507 3866 (Office)

E-mail address: mroodt@cut.ac.za

 

Abstract

Studies show that reading is a source of learning as well as enjoyment.  Many researchers have emphasized the importance of including extensive reading as part of second language learning.  Reading for pleasure, or free reading has been acknowledged as “the fastest and surest way to learn language”. As Krashen states, “the path of pleasure is the only way”.  Other studies show that teachers’ lived experiences shape their beliefs about practice. White teachers have been exposed to early experiences with literacy were encountered in the home, for black teachers the school was where they had their first exposure to literacy.  As a lecturer, I have been concerned about my Teacher Education students’ lack of interest in and knowledge of reading for pleasure. Being an avid reader, I decided to take my students on the road to reading for enjoyment to inculcate love of reading in their learners. I asked them to focus on novels which deal with growing up. My students indicated that they  learned  much about the world, other cultures and other  people. They realized that suffering is a common human condition. As far as language is concerned, they indicated that their language improved in terms of vocabulary, awareness of sentence construction. They also commented on the various dialects of English they encountered in their reading and seemed to be more sensitive to cultural differences. My research design is  living theory, which is a form of action research. Living theory involves an explanation of the researcher’s learning journey and those that she teaches in the ‘environment’ in which she works and is practice driven. Living theory is essentially about the researcher’s own philosophies, values and beliefs. This paper will explicate research in progress with B.Ed 2 English students at the Central University of Technology, Free State.

 

 

 

Technology stratifies: a comparative case study of two rural day secondary schools in Zaka District

By

Daniel Madzanire (Mr)

Great Zimbabwe University

Email: danielmadzanire@gmail.com

And

Corinne Meier (Prof)

Department of Teacher Education UNISA

Email: meierc@unisa.ac.za

Theme: Science and Technology

 

The study focused on how technology as a learning utility stratifies learners as it prepares them for different future destinations. A comparative case study research design was used. A sample of 48 participants comprising 4 teachers, 4 administrators and 40 pupils was purposively drawn. It emerged from the study that learners who used technology were prepared for their future careers better than their counterparts who did not. Recommendations were made for the stakeholders to facilitate the use of technology in enhancing learning in rural day schools.

 

Key Words:  technology stratifies career learner

 

 

 

 Sub-theme: Curriculum Development and Implementation

 

Topic: ODL Tutors’ Experiences in Curriculum Implementation in Search of Quality

 

Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika-a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (akmubika@gmail.com) and Barnabas Muyengwa a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (muyengwabb@gmail.com)

ODL tutors have varied backgrounds, expertise and experiences regarding curriculum implementation. Also of particular interest to the present researchers is the observation that ODL tutors are usually not housed at one place, but they are scattered countrywide and beyond. In regard to the search of quality curriculum implementation, ODL tutors are expected to operate on the same wavelength with conventional university lecturers. Interestingly, ODL tutors and conventional university lecturers are presumably operating on an uneven ground. Perhaps this is because of the delivery nature of ODL in which the ODL tutor appears to have more teaching and administrative responsibilities than the conventional university lecturer. This study deliberately seeks to unravel the degree to which ODL tutors’ experiences in curriculum implementation could pursue quality in the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management Programme at the Zimbabwe Open University. This is a qualitative case study which tries to generate new knowledge in the quality curriculum implementation of ODL programmes. The purposively sampled research participants will provide data by responding to quester views. The data gathered will be sorted and coded thematically to pave way for interpretation.

 

 

 

 

Theme: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

 

Sub-theme: Gender Issues in Education

 

Topic: A Comparative Study of the Performance in Educational Statistics by Gender at the Zimbabwe Open University

Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika -a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (akmubika@gmail.com) and Barnabas Muyengwa a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (muyengwabb@gmail.com)

 

University graduates sometimes face teething challenges in completing their programmes on time as a result of a core course called Introduction to Educational Statistics. Some students gain entry to the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management Degree without adequate mathematical background. It is against this background that the current case study seeks to compare the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management students’ performance in the Introduction to Educational Statistics by gender at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU). The study will contribute to the generation of new knowledge by proffering ways to improve students’ performance in the Introduction to Educational Statistics both at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels at the ZOU. Data will be collected by means of document analysis. Tutors and Regional Programme Co-ordinators shall respond to in-depth interviews soliciting for their perceptions of the students’ performance in Educational Statistics. Performance of students by gender will be compared using statistical tests, chiefly the t-test.

 

 

 

 

Theme: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

 

Sub-theme: Education and Development

 

Topic: Tutors’ Perceptions of the Efficacy of ODL in National Development

 

Tichaona Mapolisa- Senior lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (tichmapolisa@yahoo.co.uk/ tichmap@gmail.com) and Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika-a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (akmubika@gmail.com)

 

 

World over people are beginning to appreciate the contribution of ODL to development. In the past, the same people used to prejudice it in favour of conventional university education. This paper endeavours to find out tutors’ perceptions of the efficacy of ODL in national development. Tutors are the torch of their ODL institutions, hence, the need to find out how well they value the efficacy of ODL in national development. The study will in a big way attempt to explore the multi-faceted role of ODL to national development. The study focuses on the Zimbabwe Open University tutors’ (Regional Programme Co-ordinators’) perceptions of the efficacy of education to development. A qualitative study of this magnitude will contribute to the generation of theory of knowledge (Jill and Johnson, 2002). The research participants will be conveniently sampled. Convenience sample makes use of whoever research participant will be approached (Silverman, 2006). Data will be gathered using focus group interviews and telephone interviews. Themes that will have emerged will be interpreted descriptively and analytically.

 

 

 

 

 Sub-theme: Leadership and Management

 

Topic: Strategies to Achieve Gender Equity in Leadership and Management Positions at the Zimbabwe Open University’s Faculties

Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika-a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (akmubika@gmail.com) and Tichaona Mapolisa- Senior lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (tichmapolisa@yahoo.co.uk/ tichmap@gmail.com)

 

 

Faculties are assumed to have specific criteria for choosing leaders and managers to run the core business of the university. There appears to be dearth of information regarding how well gender equity is pursued in the choice of leaders and managers in certain universities. It is against this backdrop of the preceding observation that this study consciously intends to investigate strategies used at the Zimbabwe Open University’s Faculties to achieve gender equity in leadership and management positions. The study will generate new information on possible strategies to achieve gender equity in leadership and management positions in universities. The research participants shall constitute selected Zimbabwe Open University’s Regional Programme Co-ordinators, Programme Leaders, Department Chairpersons and Faculty Deans in order to gather their points of view regarding the phenomenon under study.   The research participants will be purposively sampled. This is a qualitative study that will use telephone interviews to gather data. Emerging themes from the data will be useful to draw interpretations that will culminate in the creation of new knowledge (Flick, 2009).

 

 

 

 

 

Theme: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

 

Sub-theme: Assessment in Education

 

Topic: Quality Assessment of Research Projects: Focus on Bachelor of Education in Educational Management Students’ Research projects at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU)

Tichaona Mapolisa- Senior lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (tichmapolisa@yahoo.co.uk/ tichmap@gmail.com) and Barnabas Muyengwa a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (muyengwabb@gmail.com)

 

The issue of quality assessment of research projects is topical in any university that desires to achieve quality education. Achievement of quality assessment of research projects is a result of effective research supervision (Mapolisa, Muyengwa, Chakanyuka, 2010). Of particular interest to the current researchers is to find out how well quality assessment could be enhanced by effective research supervision. The products of any university are measured by their ability to create knowledge, skills and attitude change. The focus of the present study is to explore quality assessment of research projects with particular reference to the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management students’ research projects at the ZOU. It is a qualitative case study of the ZOU’s three Regional Centres. Data will be collected using document analysis of 30 randomly sampled Bachelor of Education in Educational Management research projects. Twelve quota sampled research project supervisor-cum –examiners will be interviewed. Data will be thematically interpreted after content analysis.

 

 

 

 

 

Theme: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

Sub-theme: Teacher Education

 

Topic: Possibilities of Increasing Access to Teacher Education through Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in Zimbabwe

 

Barnabas Muyengwa a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (muyengwabb@gmail.com) and  Tichaona Mapolisa- Senior lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (tichmapolisa@yahoo.co.uk/ tichmap@gmail.com)

 

 

The question of offering teacher education through Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is a contentious issue in developing countries like Zimbabwe. Most adversaries of ODL seem to be content with the fact that teacher education can never be offered through ODL (Bukaliya and Kangai, 2011). Offering teacher education at a distance could be one of the panaceas to teacher shortage. It could also be one of the pathways to the production of a teacher of the right quality- a teacher who is capable of meeting the ever-changing demands and needs of one’s society and nation. This study examines possibilities to increase access to teacher education through ODL in Zimbabwe with particular reference to the Zimbabwe Open University’s experiences. Data will be generated from selected heads of schools, education officers and temporary teachers in Mashonaland West and Harare Provinces. Research participants who meet the study’ needs will be purposively sampled (Seale, 2006; Kumar, 2008). Research participants will respond to in-depth interviews. Research data will be subjected to didactic analysis prior to data interpretation that shall be carried out thematically.

 

 

 

 

 

The relationship between learning approaches and personality traits: a case study of a traditional university in South Africa

 

Prof DP Ngidi

Central University of Technology, Free State

dngidi@cut.ac.za

 

Abstract:

The generic aim of good teaching is to encourage students to adopt a deep learning approach and to discourage the use of a surface learning approach (Biggs, 1999). Therefore, in an ideal situation, all students would be expected to engage with learning activities at the highest level (deep approach) instead of lowest level (surface approach). However, a particularly depressing finding is that most students in most undergraduate courses become increasingly surface and decreasingly deep in their approach to learning (Watkins and Hattie, 1985; Biggs, 1987; Gow and Kember, 1990).

Recent research has emphasised the importance of students’ learning approaches as determinants of academic performance and knowledge acquisition (Duff, 2003; Duff et al., 2004) but as Chamorro-Premuzic, Furnham and Lewis (2007) correctly points out, an interesting and a largely neglected question is whether learning approaches can be simply understood as a function of established personality traits, or whether they may independently contribute to academic performance.

The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is any relationship between personality dimensions (Extraversion and Neuroticism) and learning approaches (deep approach and surface approach). The theoretical hypothesis was that there is no relationship between personality dimensions (Extraversion and Neuroticism) and learning approaches (deep approach and surface approach).

The study was conducted to a sample of randomly selected students who were registered for a Bachelor of Education degree in the Faculty of Education at one of the traditional universities in South Africa. The questionnaire was used as a research instrument for collecting data. It consisted of two sections. The first section consisted of the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F). The second section consisted of the Eysenck Personalty Questionnaire (EPQ). The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was used to test the hypothesis of the study. The findings of the study will be discussed and based the findings, recommendations will be made.

 

 

 

“You are not my child, you are not my parent, and this is my child”: An exploration of in loco parentis doctrine breakdown in public schools 

Letlhoyo Segalo (lsegalo@cut.ac.za)

Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa

Abstract

Raising a child in African philosophy is deeply rooted in the notion of humanism, Ubuntu. This assertion is encapsulated in the proverb that a child is raised by the whole village. Schools are viewed in the same way as villages that nurture and nourish the well-being of learners in the same way parents at home and in the neighbourhood could have done. South Africa as a diverse society and a society in search for its identity has seen a proliferation of African values being replaced by Eurocentric values such as liberalism and individualism.

The researcher in this paper asserts that public schools in South Africa have not escaped the scorch of Eurocentric values. A child is no longer regarded as a wealth of the whole village and parents are as well protective of their children. This situation has put teachers at difficult position to instil discipline to learners in order to protect themselves against any maltreat of learners. This research study explored the extent to which teachers in secondary schools have experienced the breakdown of in loco parentis doctrine in secondary schools in Lejweleputswa of the Free State province.

A non-experimental quantitative research survey was employed using a systematic randomized sampling of 50 teachers in secondary schools was used.

Keywords: parent, child, in loco parentis, humanism, Ubuntu, African, Eurocentric, values

(A paper to be presented at SASE Conference, Zimbabwe University, Harare)

 

 

 

Actions of Department of Basic Education in Limpopo: Violation of the right of the child to education

Letlhoyo Segalo (lsegalo@cut.ac.za)

Central University of Technology, Free State, Republic of South Africa

Abstract

The actions of the Department of Basic Education (DoBE) in Limpopo province of South Africa to provide learners with learning materials and teachings aids is a direct violation of section 29 of the Constitution (RSA). The Constitution provides that the government should provide, promote, respect and protect the fundamental rights of its citizens particularly the vulnerable one. More so section the best interest of the child was neglected in the process. This research study used document analysis in order to explore the extent to which actions of the DoBE in Limpopo province constitutes negligence and violations of human rights. Furthermore, the research study employed legal instruments such as the Constitution, International Law and Case law to evaluate the actions of the DoBE.

Keywords: Department of Basic Education, Limpopo province, the right to education, promote, respect, provide, protect.

(A paper to be presented at SASE Conference, Zimbabwe University, Harare)

 

Exploring euphemism as supplement for corporal punishment in public schools in South Africa

Letlhoyo Segalo and Papi Lemeko

Central University of Technology, Free State (lsegalo@cut.ac.za) & (plemeko@cut.ac.za)

Abstract

The dawn of a democratic South Africa in 1994 established a society entrenched in Human Rights milieu. As such, public schools are meant to align their policies with the rule of the law. Particularly, section 10 (1) of South African Schools Act, 84 1996 (hereafter SASA) respectfully prohibits the administration of corporal punishment directed at a learner in public schools. The subsequent section 10 (2) of SASA admonishes that any person contravening section 10 (1) of SASA is liable on conviction to a sentence which could be imposed for assault. These mentioned provisions of the school legislation are consistent with section 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RSA) which affords every person the inherent right to dignity of the person.

Against the afore-mentioned legislative provisions, teachers have resorted to the use of euphemism as a tool to inflict punishment in the manner that it could be equated with corporal punishment. Euphemism is a form of language that is indirect but used to cause emotional and psychological harm, belittle, ridicule and humiliate the person it directed at. Judged against the provisions of the legislation governing schools in South African public schools, euphemism could be said to be a direct violation of fundamental rights of learners to dignity of the person.

In order to explore the intonation of euphemism as supplement for corporal punishment the research paper employed a qualitative critical emancipatory research (CER) approach. Data gathered through a purposive sample of ten secondary teachers was analysed by the use of textual oriented discourse analyses.

Keywords: euphemism, corporal punishment, Human Rights, South African Schools Act, critical emancipatory research, textual oriented discourse analyses.  (Paper to be presented at South African Society of Education, Zimbabwe University, Harare)

 

Empirical study of digital poverty: A case of Central University of Technology, Free Sate.

 

Abstract

The emergent of information and communication technologies (ICT) has greatly impacted the socio-economical and political activities of individuals, organisations and nations. It is the survival of the fittest where individuals, organisations and nations that manage to harness it, have managed to reduce operational cost, satisfy their stakeholders, increase profits and in particular have a competitive edge. Those that fail to exploit this unfolding phenomenon fail to overcome challenges from their competitors and meet the demands of their customers, suppliers and other stakeholders.  Such organisations are faced with high production cost, dwindling profits, loss of market share and competitive advantage. In education, students who manage to harness this technology have amplified their active, evaluative, integrative, creative and collaborative learning capabilities, leaving those with no or limited access, availability and accessibility behind. Consequently, this has broadened the socio-economical and political gap between the “have” and “have not”, which culminated in digital poverty. This research evaluates the availability and use of ICT by 50 first and 20 third year students from disadvantaged and privileged families studying computer education at Central University of Technology (CUT), Free Sate. Through literature review, a detailed analysis is done on the users of ICTs, poverty, digital divide and factors which lead one group to be unable to adopt, access, and use ICT.  A pilot study comprising 5 first year students was carried out to evaluate the extent of ICTs access, availability, accessibility and universal- access   and it confirmed the necessity of using connectivity, social status and level of education as the determinants of ICT usage. Obtained information is then used to give an empirical definition of digital poverty. Although the research is not yet complete, the following is to be done; (a) to probe deeper into responses of the interviewees and make sure that they feel comfortable with answering questions, face-to-face interviews are conducted to a stratified random sample of 5 first and 5 third year students; (b) to create a framework for assessing the degree of ICT usage based on connectivity, social status and level of education, the researcher distributed questionnaires to a stratified random sample of 50 first and 20 third year students; and (c) the above framework is to be used to categorize the population into groups of extremely digitally poor, digitally poor, connected, and digitally wealthy. The first section deals with a conceptual discussion of digital poverty, its types and possible levels. The second section concerns the validation of the classification, using data from CUT.  Results, discussion and conclusion will be discussed after the main study.

 

  

Paul Dumisani Bajilla

Use of indigenous Music Genres in the Teaching of Composition in Zimbabwe: Towards an Indigenous Music Theory Approach.

Abstract

The paper discusses the potential of indigenous knowledge systems in fostering cultural education in Zimbabwe. Its main focus is music composition. The general trend clearly shows that music education in Africa is Western in its design, structure and presentation. As such, there is an imbalance in cultural education, its growth and development. This scenario therefore reveals the suppression of African cultural ideology, values and structures at the expense of the African learner. It is thus the thrust of this paper to posit that it is through ‘ethno-composition’ (research-based composition), which captures peculiar music-cultural elements, that a contemporary indigenous composer can re-define and rejuvenate Africa’s identity and humanism (ubuntu). According to Nzewi and Nzewi (2007), indigenous creative theory, structural-aesthetic models and analytical tools of discourse, are fundamental principles in African music. The view above emphasises the adoption of cultural elements embedded in the song-dance styles of Africa for use by an African composition educator. As a qualitative ethnographic research, the research has used the Ndebele folksongs from Zimbabwe that were collected using ethnographic approach. The traditional songs were collected, transcribed and analysed to deduce the “indigenous music theory”. The pre-compositional resources have been used in the demonstration of ethnocentric art choral music composition. Therefore, the paper provides an indigenous oriented compositional guide therefore coming up with ethno-compositional models based on the indigenous knowledge systems for the teaching of composition in Zimbabwean institutions, and in African at large.

 

Biographical Note

Mr Paul Dumisani Bajilla is a Master of Philosophy (Music Composition) student at Midlands State University. Currently, he is an Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Music and Musicology at Midlands State University in Zimbabwe. Email address: bajillapd@gmail.com  or bajillapd@msu.ac.zw

 

 

 

 Nombembe, Zibonele and Nombembe, Caciswa

Use of Technology in Authentic Assessment: A Constructivist Approach

Abstract

In the Constructivist approach, learners are not considered as empty gadgets. Instead learning is viewed as an active process whereby learners are expected to create knowledge patterns or psychological images. This paper therefore seeks to provide classroom teachers with different technological ways of assessing their students’ abilities to learn. For best results, the teacher should be aware of the students’ backgrounds and their general attitudes. Moreover, creative authentic activities should be of great significance to the real world.  Authentic assessment involves creative plans and positive drive for student’s maximum performance.

Biographical Note:

Zibonele Nombembe a Secondary school teacher at Palmridge High School, South Africa and a Computer-Technology student at the University of Johannesburg. nombs2009@gmail.com

Caciswa Nombembe is a Masters candidate at the University of Witwatersrand. nombembec@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

 Sub-theme: Work related learning.

 

Topic: Quality of industrial attachment for students in agricultural colleges in Zimbabwe post land reform.

 Author: Xavier Edziwa  e-mail: xedziwa@gmail.com or xedziwa@education.uz.ac.zw

                 Renias Chivheya e-mail rchivheya@gmail.com

Abstract

Agricultural colleges in Zimbabwe have a history of  producing highly skilled graduates due to, among other things, the  industrial attachment component of their training which can be traced back to the early 1980s. Industrial attachment is a work related form of learning which includes a period of learning that takes place in a work setting. However, due to the fast track land reform that commenced in 2000, the landscape in terms of land ownership in Zimbabwe has since changed and most of the commercial farms  where the students used to be attached have either been converted to A1 communal type of ownership or small scale (A2) type. This paper looks at the quality of industrial attachment students in agricultural colleges are currently getting against this background. Focus will be on students’ perceptions of the worthiness of the exposure in terms of production technologies involved, type of mentorship and the diversity of activities while on industrial attachment. The paper  also endeavours to establish the extent to which students from agricultural colleges in Zimbabwe easily access placements for industrial attachment in the new set up.  Lastly, the paper will highlight what students feel are the most critical challenges associated with industrial attachment/work related learning in this new landscape and possible solutions.

 

 

Teacher Preparation: Are teachers adequately prepared to teach an integrated Life Skills Curriculum to young children?

 

This paper presents the perceptions of third year Bachelor of Education students who are specialising in Early Childhood Education in one South African University. Perceptions about their experiences of teaching integrated Life skills to Foundation Phase learners during their teaching practicumwere investigated. This cohort was chosen because they are the first group to specialise in ECE in this university. The study is hoped to reveal gaps in their teaching of Life Skills in order to address them during their final year of study. This is a qualitative study located within an interpretive paradigm. Interviews were used to generate data. Ten third year students specialising in Early Childhood Education were purposively selected.  Data revealed that students’ knowledge about integration is very shallow some indicated that they were unable to integrate in their teaching; they only focused on topics that appeared in the curriculum document. The study recommends that there should be emphasise during lectures on how integration is done in the teaching of Life Skills, proper training on this aspect is a necessity.

 

Keywords: Life Skills, teaching, integration, Foundation Phase, perceptions, students

 

 

 

 

 

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their Application

 

M.M Chili

 

Department of Mathematics, Science and Technology, University of Zululand, P/Bag X1001,

Kwa-Dlangezwa, 3886, South Africa,

Tel. +27 35 902 6809, Fax 086 729 5026

Email: mchili@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

 

Nanoparticles are materials ranging between 1 to 100 nm in length. Nanoscience is defined as the understanding, manipulation, and control of matter at the above-stated length, such that the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the materials (individual atoms, molecules, and bulk matter) can be engineered, synthesized, and altered to develop the next generation of improved materials, devices, structures, and systems. Multi twinned gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by an ultraviolet irradiation technique involving the reduction of a gold salt in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Metal nanoparticles, particularly silver, gold and copper, have been the focus of great interest because of their unique optical properties. The surface modification of metal nanoparticles with functional polymers has received considerably attention recently [,].Stabilizing agents can direct growth along certain preferred planes leading to the formation of uniform anisotropic particles. Choice of the reduction technique, irradiation time, concentration of the precursor and capping material determines the size and shape of the nanoparticles generated. The size, morphology and crystallinity of the as-prepared nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis, TEM, HRTEM, SAED and XRD, and found to be in the nanometer size range. The focus of this paper is to summarize recent applications of nanoparticles as they relate to our daily lives.

 

 

Keywords: Gold nanoparticles, UV irradiation, Anisotropic particles, polyvinyl

pyrrolidone (PVP)

 

 

 SUB THEME: Leadership and management

TOPIC: Leadership for sustainable development: The role of higher education in producing a generation of new leaders

By

Chiome Chrispen: Zimbabwe Open University: Senior Lecturer in Educational Leadership and Policy

Chabaya Raphinos Alexander: Regional Campus Director: Zimbabwe Open University and

Kurasha Primrose: Vice Chancellor: Zimbabwe Open University

 

Phone: 0026339264965

Fax: 0026339264993

Cell: 00263772905274

E-mail: chrischiwome@gmail.com

 

Research Topic: Leadership for sustainable development: The role of higher education in producing a generation of new leaders

Abstract

 

Stakeholders’ expectations are the benchmark against which leadership development curriculum is arrived at. This study sought to determine stakeholders’ expectations on the type of organisational leaders to be produced by higher education for sustainable development. A survey of three provinces was employed to gather data through interviews from a convenient sample of 60 organisational leaders. Findings revealed that organisational leaders’ perception of a new generation of leaders for sustainable development comprise those who are sources of wisdom and competence, have transformational and technological influence, know how to learn and have capacity to manage new challenges as they come. They also hold the views that linkages are key to leadership in the new era and expect the new type of leaders to promote collaborative productivity, develop teamworking skills, establish strong partnerships and networks and instill the spirit of innovation and creativity. Leaders for sustainable development must work as change agents and display a forward looking mentality in self managing institutions that have an empowering culture. The study recommended that educational products, processes and outcomes in leadership preparation programmes in higher education must meet changing circumstances and address customer preferences as was the case in this study.

 

Key words: Organisational leader, sustainable development, leadership for development and new generation of leaders.

 

 SUB THEME: Inclusive education

TOPIC: Diversity, multiculturality and globalisation: Reworking open and distance learning curriculum for sustainable development

By

  • Chabaya Raphinos Alexander: Regional Campus Director; Zimbabwe Open University;
  • Chiome Chrispen: Senior Lecturer in Educational Leadership and Policy

&  3. Mupa Paul: Quality Assurance Coordinator

Phone: 0026339264965

Fax: 026339264993

Cell: 0263772905274

E-mail: chrischiwome@gmail.com

TOPIC: Diversity, multiculturality and globalisation: Reworking open and distance learning curriculum for sustainable development

 

ABSTRACT

The impact of ever-increasing numbers of open and distance learning (ODL) courses on the demographic composition of classes has meant that the notions of diversity, multiculturality and globalisation are now key aspects of curriculum planning and delivery. With the internationalisation and globalisation of education, and faced with rising needs for an increasingly educated and more adequately trained workforce, ODL universities are challenged to rework their curriculum in line with the globalisation trends and assisted by new educational and communications technologies. In this regard, this research interrogated practices in an ODL university to uncover diversity, multiculturality and globalisation in course delivery across programmes. This was a case study informed by a convenience sample of 107 students and 36 staff members. The study unearthed that, faced with the diversity of populations and needs, few lecturers are aware of the importance of addressing the notions of multiculturality and interculturality in delivering ODL programmes. They fail to integrate and address the multicultural dimension in a distance education course aimed at students who live in diverse cultural environments. They face challenges related to intercultural communication in an ODL environment thereby affecting teaching and learning. It appeared as though there are no characteristics of an ODL course that is inclusive of all types of diversity, and some guiding principles for designing such courses appeared missing. The study thus, recommended the urgent use of different ODL instructional design models that are culturally inclusive, and use of a mediated instructional training manual on the management of the cultural dimension of ODL teaching and learning.

 

Keywords: Open and distance learning, globalisation, cross-cultural, diversity, instructional design and sustainable development

 

 

 

Perceptions of parents of children with special needs towards inclusioninZimbabwe.

Amiel T. Mavugara- University of Johannesburg-PhD  Student.

amielmavugara@gmail.com

Abstract

A qualitative study sought to explore the perceptions of parents of children with mental retardation, hearing impairment and physical disabilities towards inclusive education in Masvingo District in Zimbabwe. A total sample size of 35 participants took part in the study. Data was collected through individual face- to- face interviews and a questionnaire to the participants. The analysis of data was thematically done.The results showed that the participants have a positive attitude towards inclusion especially the view that it fosters social facilitation among learners regardless of their differences.  In conclusion the study pleads for a thorough focus on inclusive education in Zimbabwe.

 

 

 

 

Comparative Analysis of Learners’ Views of the Selection Criteria for Prefecthood and Effects of Prefecthood Roles on Learners’ Academic Motivation

 

1Israel Kariyana*, 2Cosmas Maphosa and 3Beginner Mapuranga

 

1.         Walter Sisulu University, Department of Education, Mthatha, South Africa

2.         University of Venda, Centre for Higher Education Teaching and Learning, Thohoyandou, South Africa

3.         Walter Sisulu University, Department of Physics, Mthatha, South Africa

 

*Corresponding author: Email: kariyanaisrael@yahoo.com Cell: +27 73 686 3953

 

Abstract

 

The aim of this study was to identify learners’ perspectives of how school prefects ought to be selected and describe the influence of prefecthood on learners’ academic motivation. A total of 250 learners from five purposively selected private and public schools in one educational district in South Africa participated in this study. 50 percent of the participants were prefects while 50 percent were non-prefects. Data were intentionally sought at that ratio to pave way for reasonable comparative analysis.  A qualitative-cum-quantative research design was used to collect data through interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined by the use of Chronbach’s alpha coefficient and a pilot study was conducted to ensure validity. Likert scales were used as responses. Quantitative data were analysed with the aid of the SPSS statistical software package version 15 and presented through a blend of both descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data were analysed through content analysis. It emerged from the study that to varying degrees, there are both divergent and convergent views of learners regarding the issue of selecting prefects and its academic motivational impact on learners and prefects themselves. Based on the findings, recommendations are made buttressed on the implications for school management practices.

 

Key words: Academic motivation. Effects. Learners. Prefecthood. Prefects. Selection criteria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sexual harassment: the “silent killer “of female students in the academia.

 

Jabulile J D Adams: Department of Educational Psychology & Special Education

*Eunice T. Dlamini: Department of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education

  Sewela M. Mabusela Department of Curriculum and instruction studies

University Of Zululand

msmabusel@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

Abstract

 

Sexual harassment of female students has been a fashionable social ill in institutions of Higher Education for ages even before the ushering of democracy in South Africa. In institutions where there are no policies and procedures for dealing with the allegations, this pathology is presumably huge and obviously. Most female students find it difficult if not impossible or even unnecessary “to break the silence” about their dilemma and that of others. Despite  the fact that that has enshrined been in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa ,1996, people have freedom of expression, female students’ rarely lap this privilege The reason is not too far to seek.   Male lecturers seem to have mastered the art silencing them by putting a condition that “you have to have sex with me to pass my module or fail it”. The current study sought to establish the extent to which sexual harassment takes place at the case study university. The research problem of this study is articulated through the following research questions: (1) What is sexual harassment? (2) Does sexual harassment exist in their institution? (3)  How is sexual harassment handled? (4) How does sexual harassment affect female students? The study targeted female under -graduate students in all faculties. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and focused interviews and was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Possible implications for student achievement and are discussed and recommendations were espoused.

 

 

 

THE SOCIO-EMOTIONAL DILEMMAS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHING IN ZIMBABWE: A CONCERNS-BASED APPROACH.

 

                     Jonathan Mswazie

                   Great Zimbabwe University

                   Department of Curriculum Studies

                   E-mail dubemswazi@yahoo.com

                             And

                  Daniel Gamira

                Great Zimbabwe University

               Department of Teacher Development

              E-mail dgamira.lands@gmail.com

 

 

The study investigated pre-service students’ responses to an innovative teacher education programme. The purpose of the study was to understand and explain student teachers’ increasing disillusionment with primary school teaching. Fuller’s (1970) concept of stages of concern concept and Goleman’s (1986) concept of emotional intelligence were used as theoretical frameworks for conducting the study  The data to address the problem was collected by means of the descriptive survey comprised of a student rating form questionnaire, un-structured and structured interviews .The sample consisted of two student intakes in-takes of 2004 and 2008 respectively of  post-Advanced level students  who were the first groups to pioneer a pre-service primary teacher education degree programme , 2 teacher educators and 12 school based mentors participating in the implementation of the programme. The results of the study indicate that primary teaching is regard as humiliating and a millstone around the neck for a number of reasons. A demeaning set of factors comprised of established social values, financial and emotional stress, in adequate teaching skills and competences, unsupportive teacher educators and mentors cumulatively contribute negative perceptions towards primary school teaching.  Firstly, the results of the indicate that in terms of the prevailing social cultures, primary teaching has a lower status than secondary teaching.  Secondly, lack of financial support in terms of allowances during teaching practice projects the programme in bad light. Related to this is the lengthy period it takes to complete the programme-four year .of which students are expected to fund their tuition.  Thirdly, student in the programme seem to go for teaching practice ill equipped to manage the primary school curriculum in comparison to their counterparts from teacher colleges. This is evident in respect of practical teaching competencies such as chalk board writing skills and teaching media improvisation.med compromises the status of post-Sixth form students during field practice. Consequently, they have become a laughing stock among their peer and experienced teachers. Lastly, lack of support in the form of encouragement from their tutors seem to fuel negative attitudes towards primary school teaching. Student teachers feel unappreciated. In this respect, student seem ill-informed about the original goals of the programme hence they can not relate to the goals of the programme. Thirdly, lack of financial support from government in the form of living allowances during field practice makes this programme unattractive to students. In contrast student teachers from teachers colleges enjoy get living allowances from the controlling Ministry of Higher Education. More significantly, undeclared turf wars with lack of emotional support from influential people such as  school heads and mentors makes primary school teaching costly in terms of emotions and effort. In light of the above this study proposes a major overhaul in the conceptualisation, design and delivery of post sixth form pre-service primary teacher education programmes. First,  at individual levels, primary school teaching should be regarded as problematic and a socio-moral dilemma for post-Sixth form student teachers. In light of the above, designers of initial teacher education programmes should incorporate concern-based principles in the design and implementation of initial teacher education programmes. At policy formulation level, there is need to harmonise teacher education policies to guard against the current scenario where college based students receive living allowances whilst their counterparts  in universities get nothing. should be regarded as problematic and should be accorded space in both the design and delivery of primary teacher education programmes. Lastly, the results of the study suggest that designing and implementing sustainable    primary teacher education programmes require more than the mastery of teacher education technologies. It requires among other things coherent educational policies across institutional levels, motivated staff and effective emotional support systems for students undergoing teacher training.

 Key words: teacher education programme: resistance, student teachers, design and delivery, weaknesses

 

 

 

SUB THEME: Gender issues in education

TOPIC:          Women participation in African universities, opportunities and challenges for sustainable development in Zimbabwe

Author:          Dr. L.T. Nyaruwata            email: lnyaruwata4@gmail.com

Institution:     Zimbabwe Open University

 

Abstract

This paper reports the findings of a study carried out in Zimbabwe higher education institutions during the months of July to September of 2011. The aim for the study was to identify the barriers faced by Zimbabwean women to get positions of management and leadership. The objectives for the study were to explore factors that militate against women’s participation in higher education leadership and management and establish strategies to increase their participation in decision making in higher education in Zimbabwe. The study was undertaken through qualitative research approach and case study design. A semi-structured interview guide was used for the interviews and data were analysed through content analysis technique. The results for the study indicate that out of 14 vice chancellors leading and managing Zimbabwean universities only two were women. Out of the 14 universities registrars’ only 3 were women and out of the nine directors in the MoHTE only one was a woman at the time of the study. The barriers hindering women from getting positions of leadership and management were identified as culture of patriarch, limited access of women to higher education, discriminatory promotion practices and women dual responsibilities of traditional and professional roles. The recommendations from the study are that women be helped to get leadership and management by the following strategies; mentorship, networking, affirmative action, gender budgeting and development and implementation of training programmes specific for training universities and other higher education institutions leaders and managers.

 

 

 

TAKING  A  JUXTAPOSITION  ON  BEST  ORPHAN  CARE:  INSTITUTIONALSATION  VERSUS  CHILD  CARE WITHIN  EXTENDED  FAMILIES  IN  ZIMBABWE.

BY

Emily   Ganga (emilyganga@gmail.com)

Tafara Mufanechiya (tafaramufanechiya76@gmail.com)

Albert Mufanechiya (mufanechiya@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has ravaged many homes leaving children to live as orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). Many may decide to stay alone in child – headed households (CHH) whilst others are co-opted into orphanages and extended family systems in an effort to normalise family life. This descriptive survey attempted to compare and contrast two dimensions that families take in an effort to give care and support to orphaned children. Ten family heads from extended families and five heads of orphanages were conveniently sampled from Masvingo urban community in Zimbabwe. The ten extended family – heads were interviewed together with the five heads from the orphan-care institutes. Data collected were juxtaposed to establish the views and the best child – care model for OVC with reference to the two available options that uproot them and leave them from their parents’ home. It was established that in an orphanage, children stay independently as siblings; they suffer the heavy loss of parents but are able to pick up the pieces and continue with life albeit under difficult conditions. The siblings share emotional, social and spiritual support unlike in an extended family set-up where breadwinners might want to share the orphans for care and support. The separation of siblings has been found to break up family ties and at the same time has its own drawbacks in the form of exposure to abuse, problems of lack of resources to sustain family life, challenges in effective behaviour-shaping and lack of direct guidance on acceptable cultural values and norms. Orphans who are shared amongst the extended families have reported loneliness, isolation, over- working and lack of proper parental care. The care of orphaned children has its challenges that necessitate proper planning on the part of the caregivers and well-wishers.

KEY WORDS:  HIV/AIDS, OVC- care, orphanage, extended family, juxtaposition

 

 

 

TO BE OR NOT TO BE AN ADULT EDUCATOR : AN ASSESSMENT OF NGOS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE GZU                                                   ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION DIPLOMA.

 

BY

M.P. MABUTO mmabuto@yahoo.com

and

D.P. CHIPATISO davechipatiso@gmail.com

Abstract

The study sought to investigate the attitudes of the NGOs towards the Diploma in Adult and Continuing Education  Programme offered by Great Zimbabwe University following a noticeable  decline of student enrolment from 2010.The study used a survey design. Both management and non-management members of Masvingo- based NGOs that had previously enrolled and  those that  never enrolled adult learners for the diploma programme, participated in the  survey which used the qualitative and quantitative research designs. Data were obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scaled questionnaire and interview schedule. The data gathered were presented quantitatively in tabular form. Descriptive statistics  were used to summarize the data and to identify the attitudes of the respondents towards the diploma in adult and  continuing education study programme. The findings of the research were that the attitudes of  both the management and non-management staff were ‘positive’ in general. However, management perceived that some of the courses were lacking focus on NGO fieldwork while non management staff saw the duration of the programme as a barrier.  The researchers recommend the revisiting of  stakeholder needs analysis in order to re-align the programme to make it need-feeling.

 

Key words: adult education, training, adult educator, attitudes, adult and continuing education programme,non-governmetal organizations.

 

 

 

TRADITIONAL EXPERTSAND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE DANDE VALLEY OF  ZIMBABWE: IMPLICATIONS AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS

Anyway Katanha

Lecturer, Geography and Environmental Studies, the Zimbabwe Open University
katanhaa@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract: Subtheme: Indigenous Knowledge Systems

This paper examines the importance of traditional indigenous knowledge systems in the Dande Valley of Zimbabwe in the context of climate change. Information was extracted through key informant interviews with local indigenous experts who have lived the experiences of a changing environment and have developed skills to match changes as established through observations and use them to mitigate the effects of climate change.,Local indigenous experts in the field of Astronomy and Plant Phenology who live in this risky fragile environment  Dande ,have developed respectable, intricate prediction systems that have  helped their communities to mitigate and adapt to climate change as well as secure income and food consumption.An intergral part of these systems are the knowledge systems that help households plan for the future events and decrease uncertainty.  Results revealed that indigenous knowledge systems have been given less attention as their importance is underpinned in addressed development projects. The paper  highlights and recommends some promising adaptive strategies that could be integrated with scientific methods   currently in use by or possible for producers, rural communities and local institutions to mitigate climate change effects while preserving the livelihoods and environmental and social sustainability.

Keywords: Indigenous Knowledge, Sustainable Agriculture, Climate Change, Soil,

 

 

Vuya uhodhe!Dhora riya rotenga! Unpacking the Artistry in Informal Traders’ Advertisements: A Submission from The Railway Siding Market Expedition in Masvingo. ,

Mika Nyoni

mikanyoni@gmail.com

Lecturer in the Curriculum Studies Department at  Great Zimbabwe University

Tsitsi Nyoni

tsinyoni@gmail.com

Lecturer in the Department of Teacher Development at  Great Zimbabwe University

 

This paper explores the linguistic repertoire of informal traders at the Railway Siding Market in Masvingo town, Zimbabwe. The researchers armed with notebooks and cell phones recorded verbatim the advertisements on several days traversing the entire geography of the expansive market. The researchers did this in order to study the chosen phenomenon in situ observing the spirited advertising, which ranged from arranging wares in certain conspicuous patterns, offering nzwisa and bonsella, free demonstrations, to outrageous claims their super products were capable of. At the epicenter of this stampede to eke out a living, we noted, was the language which in most cases  may determine how much one sells. Because of the competition and demand for space, which has seen the market being extended, there is also, we believe, an increased artistry or sophistication in language use in an effort to outdo and outsell through outspeaking rivals in the process providing the language enthusiast with a scoop and a half. From the analysis of the linguistic data gathered one can witness a plethora of linguistic processes at play including borrowing, extension, narrowing, coinage,among many. Also discernible from the code used are the values, attitudes and stereotypes of the speech community which are discussed in this paper.

 

 

 

 

TITLE: WORK RELATED LEARNING : AN ENHANCEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

 

AUTHOR: JACOB NEZANDONYI

 

DESIGINATION: LECTUTER IN THE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION CENTRE

 

WORK PLACE: HARARE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

BOX BE 277 GANGES ROAD, BELVEDERE, HARARE,

EMAIL: jnezandonyi@yahoo.com

 

CELL NO. 0733861723

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This research paper focuses on the employee skills gap problem experienced by engineering companies.  A mixed methods research design was used to conduct the research study.  Purposive sampling method was used to select two hundred final year students doing industrial manufacturing engineering, food processing engineering, electronic engineering, information communication technology and chemical processing engineering. Both industrial attachment supervisors and the engineering students responded to two questionnaires.  The students’ questionnaire solicited for previous work related learning experiences and their current industrial skills. The industrial attachment supervisors’ questionnaire asked for the students’ skills gap in the engineering fields.

The research study showed that work related learning enhances equal access of learners to various jobs.  Various students also have a higher potential to effectively participate in national economic and political developments.  Work related learning promotes strong relationships between educational institutions and the industry (various employing sectors). Most of the students lacked inter-personal communication skills, leadership and engineering design problem solving skills.

The recommendations for this study are as follows,:

Higher learning institutions must establish partnerships with the industries.  They must work together in designing and developing engineering learning curriculum. Career guidance and counseling programs must not terminate at high school but continue up to university level.  Work related learning programs must emphasise engineering design problem solving skills.  Higher education teaching staff must  also have a regular  industrial placement programmes.  This allows them to have up to date knowledge and skills developing in the industry.

 

KEY WORDS Industrial attachment, Skills gap, Sustainable development.

 

 

 

 

Sub-Theme: Gender Issues in Education

 

Understanding the social and institutional factors related to the retention and progression of selected female academics in four higher education institutions in Zimbabwe

 

Moffat Chitapa Tarusikirwa Ph.D.

Senior Lecturer, Zimbabwe Open University, Harare, Zimbabwe.

E-mail: mctarusikirwa@justice.com or mctarusikirwa@gmail.com

Abstract

Women’s citizenship in Academia is by far still very low in high level management ranks. The pattern of representation is still low with very little change over time (Perumal, 2003). There is persistent under representation of women in higher education management jobs in Zimbabwe and elsewhere on a global level. The problem of gender equity seems to persist despite many pieces of legislation in the various countries and the supporting institutions in the form of courts and law enforcement agents. Women in higher education (HE) experience a wide range of challenges and barriers to appointment and advancement. In my recent study in Zimbabwean universities, I found out that the Zimbabwean university workplace is still a male dominated space and women still experience challenges such as: balancing work and marriage, perceived sexual harassment, stereotyping, under representation in management ranks, lack of information on careers and career development, marginalization, imbalances in the work load and the need to constantly prove themselves. Other challenges included, cultural barriers, in particular strong patriarchy, division of labour along gender, ethnic, and class lines, institutional level formal policies and informal practices and strategies. Furthermore, there are also issues of positions of power in the organization, organizational structure, socialization in early childhood, exclusion of women from the old boy network, lack of mentors, unavailability of funds for research and publications. Some women have a problem in pursuing a double career that is if a woman is married to a professional man; patriarchy demands that the husband’s career comes first. Hence women spend time moving from place to place following the husband’s career (see Walby; 1998; Haralambos and Holborn, 1991; Moorosi, 2007; Aisenberg and Harrington, 1988). Most Zimbabwean universities still have a culture of men leadership, the image of a leader is still that of a male and the prevailing culture is that of promotion by merit of a history of research, writing and publication (see Ashby, 1964; Gaidzanwa, 2007; Maunde, 2003; Thomas, 1990). A qualitative research approach was employed for data gathering. The sample size was 20 and interpretive thematic content analysis was used for data analysis.

 

Key words: Gender, Gender equity, Women and equity, Higher education, Women faculty/ academics, Management.

 

 

 

 

Researcher: Zanele Buthelezi

University of KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa

Postal address: P.O Box 100382, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa

Tel: (27) 33 260 6274             Mobile: (27) 82 502 3624

Fax: 0866 9826 79

E mail: butheleziz@ukzn.ac.za

 

The Further Education and Training (FET) college sector in South Africa has undergone major institutional, structural and curricular changes over the last twelve years. Drawing on Norbert Elias’ social theory, the study worked within a qualitative research approach and used oral history interviews to explore FET college lecturers’ perceptions of their identity.

 

The investigation included finding out where the FET lecturers place themselves within the education system and what they identify themselves as in relation to their qualifications, their previous occupations and their current role as lecturers in FET colleges. Findings reveal that work context, educational landscape and national educational policies have had an impact in the development of FET college lecturer identity.

 

Keywords:   educational change; teacher identity; narrative enquiry; vocational education and training

 

 

 

 

THEME: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

Paper Sub/Themes:               Gender Issues in Education/Management and Leadership

The glorification and epitomisation of patriarchy through sound:  An analysis of Zimbabwean Paul Matavire music songs’ lyrics

By Alfred H. Makura*

Abstract

The late Zimbabwe blind musician Paul “Dr Love” Matavire mesmerised his audience with a music genre whose lyrics addressed contemporary social issues particularly romantic ones. His music occupies a prominent place in Zimbabwe music history and continues to portray the normative values of an Afro-traditional music genre. Three of his late 1980s hits Dhiyabhorosi Nyoka (Diabolic Snake), Taurayi zvenyu (Just Speak please) and Tanga Wandida (Love me first) collectively glorify patriarchy while portraying women folk as subservient to the masculine gender. In Dhiyabhorosi Nyoka for instance, Paul matavire controversially uses Biblical wit to demonstrate the genesis of challenges besetting contemporary society as being rooted in Eve’s original sin. The gendered and ‘blame game’ perspective is further revealed in the lyrics of the other two songs where humour, sarcasm and satire characterize the projection. Using the narrative agency perspective, the paper attempts to show how music portrays and glorifies patriarchy through vocal characterisation. The lyrics in question have educational management implications which are discussed within the context of the analysis.

Key terms: males; school heads; leadership styles; leadership; management; primary school; case study; interview; Zimbabwe;

All correspondence and requests to:

Dr. Alfred Henry Makura

University of Fort Hare,

Teaching and Learning Centre, Henderson Hall

Alice Main Campus, Private Bag X1314,

Alice 5700, South Africa

Tel: +27 721021538 or      

+27 40 602 2700

Fax: +27 08660210543

E–mails: amakura@ufh.ac.za or

alfrednyandoro@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

 

  Indigenous Knowledge: A Reservoir of Untapped Heritage

Rumbidzai Mashava Great Zimbabwe University Shabamashava@gmail.com and

Daniel Madzanire Great Zimbabwe University danielmadzanire@gmail.com

Abstract

Indigenous knowledge systems have claimed their place in the debate on knowledge for quite some time. The paper looks at how the rich and powerful marginalize minority ethnic group’s knowledge forms which remain not only invalidated but also fail to claim their space in the realm of knowledge.  In the case of Zimbabwe, the paper centers on how the Shangani knowledge is relegated to the periphery to an extent that the learners in their locality are hardly receiving instruction in vernacular. In an endeavor to get the full view of the Shangani practices and knowledge systems, the paper adopted a phenomenological research design. A sample of 48 participants comprising, 20 parents, 20 teachers and 8 school administrators were interviewed. Primary sources of information were analyzed. It emerged that the Shangani knowledge systems were largely ignored. Where their knowledge forms were found to be useful, it was made use of without acknowledgement. The knowledge forms were found to be largely unpreserved which rendered them vulnerable to use without professional recognition

 

 

 

 

Abstract: Children at Risk: Impact on orphans’ intellectual and social wellness in Masvingo Urban, Zimbabwe.

 

RachealMafumbaterachealmafumbate@yahoo.com 00263544545 or 0027722010801

Michael Mafumbatemmafumbate@yahoo.com 00263773242129

 

The human and social costs of HIV and AIDS epidemic have enormous effects on the lives of children in Zimbabwe in general and Masvingo in particular. This paper based on a mixed method research design, was conducted over a period of one year. The study gathered data from 20 purposively sampled orphans within Masvingo Urban.  This paper established that orphans in Masvingo Urban, are at risk due to lack of parental guidance.  These orphans also lack social networks like aunts, uncles orelders as compared to those in rural set up. The challenges of the poor economic situation, have also subjected them to quite a number of abuses like, sexual, psychological, physical as well as social abuse. The study established thatabusive language and stigmatization have resulted in great traumatizing, eventually impacting negatively on these orphans’ academic performance. The study recommended the strengthening of awareness campaigns through workshops, meetings, advocacy as well as lobbing for children’s rights and security. The study recommended the inclusion of promotion of orphan wellness in the school curriculum. The study also recommended the key stakeholders in the child protection area to strengthen enforcement of the laws and regulations protecting orphan and vulnerable children.

 

Keywords:Children at risk, Orphans, Vulnerable, Masvingo Urban, Zimbabwe

 

 

 

Astronomy to Inspire and Educate Young Children

C. M Paulo & V. Cuambe

http://astromozaia2009.weebly.com/actividades.html, astromozaia2009@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract

Since the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (http://www.astronomy2009.org/organisation/nodes/national/view/MZ/), we realised that Astronomy is very good to inspire young children into science. Thus, we advised the Dean of Science of the University Eduardo Mondlane, to facilitate the introduction of Astronomy into the new curriculum of the Physics and Mathematics courses, which was well received with our students. We are designing the Nation Plan for Astronomy to help our Minister of Education and Minister of Science and Technology. We are also giving the basic notion of astronomy to some primary and secondary schools all over the country.

 

 

 

 

“You are not my child, you are not my parent, and this is my child”: An exploration of in loco parentis doctrine breakdown in public schools 

Letlhoyo Segalo (lsegalo@cut.ac.za)

Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa

Abstract

Raising a child in African philosophy is deeply rooted in the notion of humanism, Ubuntu. This assertion is encapsulated in the proverb that a child is raised by the whole village. Schools are viewed in the same way as villages that nurture and nourish the well-being of learners in the same way parents at home and in the neighbourhood could have done. South Africa as a diverse society and a society in search for its identity has seen a proliferation of African values being replaced by Eurocentric values such as liberalism and individualism.

The researcher in this paper asserts that public schools in South Africa have not escaped the scorch of Eurocentric values. A child is no longer regarded as a wealth of the whole village and parents are as well protective of their children. This situation has put teachers at difficult position to instil discipline to learners in order to protect themselves against any maltreat of learners. This research study explored the extent to which teachers in secondary schools have experienced the breakdown of in loco parentis doctrine in secondary schools in Lejweleputswa of the Free State province.

A non-experimental quantitative research survey was employed using a systematic randomized sampling of 50 teachers in secondary schools was used.

Keywords: parent, child, in loco parentis, humanism, Ubuntu, African, Eurocentric, values

(A paper to be presented at SASE Conference, Zimbabwe University, Harare)

 

 

 

Exploring euphemism as supplement for corporal punishment in public schools in South Africa

Letlhoyo Segalo and Papi Lemeko

Central University of Technology, Free State (lsegalo@cut.ac.za) & (plemeko@cut.ac.za)

Abstract

The dawn of a democratic South Africa in 1994 established a society entrenched in Human Rights milieu. As such, public schools are meant to align their policies with the rule of the law. Particularly, section 10 (1) of South African Schools Act, 84 1996 (hereafter SASA) respectfully prohibits the administration of corporal punishment directed at a learner in public schools. The subsequent section 10 (2) of SASA admonishes that any person contravening section 10 (1) of SASA is liable on conviction to a sentence which could be imposed for assault. These mentioned provisions of the school legislation are consistent with section 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RSA) which affords every person the inherent right to dignity of the person.

Against the afore-mentioned legislative provisions, teachers have resorted to the use of euphemism as a tool to inflict punishment in the manner that it could be equated with corporal punishment. Euphemism is a form of language that is indirect but used to cause emotional and psychological harm, belittle, ridicule and humiliate the person it directed at. Judged against the provisions of the legislation governing schools in South African public schools, euphemism could be said to be a direct violation of fundamental rights of learners to dignity of the person.

In order to explore the intonation of euphemism as supplement for corporal punishment the research paper employed a qualitative critical emancipatory research (CER) approach. Data gathered through a purposive sample of ten secondary teachers was analysed by the use of textual oriented discourse analyses.

Keywords: euphemism, corporal punishment, Human Rights, South African Schools Act, critical emancipatory research, textual oriented discourse analyses.  (Paper to be presented at South African Society of Education, Zimbabwe University, Harare)

 

 

Actions of Department of Basic Education in Limpopo: Violation of the right of the child to education

Letlhoyo Segalo (lsegalo@cut.ac.za)

Central University of Technology, Free State, Republic of South Africa

Abstract

The actions of the Department of Basic Education (DoBE) in Limpopo province of South Africa to provide learners with learning materials and teachings aids is a direct violation of section 29 of the Constitution (RSA). The Constitution provides that the government should provide, promote, respect and protect the fundamental rights of its citizens particularly the vulnerable one. More so section the best interest of the child was neglected in the process. This research study used document analysis in order to explore the extent to which actions of the DoBE in Limpopo province constitutes negligence and violations of human rights. Furthermore, the research study employed legal instruments such as the Constitution, International Law and Case law to evaluate the actions of the DoBE.

Keywords: Department of Basic Education, Limpopo province, the right to education, promote, respect, provide, protect.

(A paper to be presented at SASE Conference, Zimbabwe University, Harare)

 

 

 

A look at language problems experienced by children with hearing impairments – The learner’s perspective

 

Francis EmsonDakwa

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Martin Musengi

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Correspondence Address:

Francis EmsonDakwa

Lecturer in Special Needs Education

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O. Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

Cell: +263775968686

Email: dakwafrancis@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

A look at language problems experienced by children with hearing impairments – The learner’s perspective

 

Abstract

The study looked at language problems experienced by children with hearing impairments from the learner’s perspective.Forty children were randomly selected from an institution for learners with hearing impairments where these children were being included with their counterparts in the regular classes in the ordinary schools. A questionnaire with both open and closed questions was administered on the sample. The questions sought to establish the hearing disability status of the parents, siblings and friends. Likewise, the questionnaire sought to determine the language problems faced by the deaf child at home, at school, as well as during the child’s communication with friends. Data was presented in frequency tables and results subsequently analysed. The results revealed that children with hearing disabilities faced communication and language problems at home and at school. There is need for parents and siblings to be taught the Zimbabwe sign language. This will enhance effective communications between the child with hearing impairments and his/her home associates.

Key terms:communication, hearing impairments, sign language

 

 

 

 

HIV and AIDS awareness among children with mental retardation in Masvingo urban – A teacher’s viewpoint

 

 Francis Emson Dakwa

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Albert Manyowa

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Absalom George Qawe Bhebe

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Professor Regis Chireshe

College of Education

University of South Africa

 

Edward Ntare Rutondoki

Department of Psychology

Kyambogo University, Uganda

 

Correspondence Address:

Francis Emson Dakwa

Lecturer in Special Needs Education

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O. Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

Cell: +263 775968686

Email: dakwafrancis@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

HIV and AIDS awareness among children with mental retardation in Masvingo urban – A teacher’s viewpoint

 

Abstract

The study sought to establish the level of HIV and AIDS awareness among children with mental retardation in Masvingo urban of southern Zimbabwe. Openness to the subject of sexuality and HIV and AIDS is considered as ‘taboo’ in many African cultures. To persons with disabilities,let alone individuals with mental retardation, sexuality and HIV are still areas of grave concern, which still require further study and investigation, hence, the interest in the present study. A questionnaire was administered on thirty-five teachers of children with mental retardation in two institutions. Data was presented in tables and results analysed.The study revealed that teachers agreed that children with mental retardation were sensitised to problems related to HIV and AIDS. The responses from teachers indicated that the HIV and AIDS sensitisation programme was an effective awareness tool. There is need for more school based awareness campaigns to sensitise children with mental retardation on the effects of HIV and AIDS transmission and infection. The need for communal participation in the awareness programme is also highlighted.

Key Terms: HIV, AIDS, mental retardation, sexuality

 

 

Impact of epilepsy on children’s academic performance

 

Francis EmsonDakwa

Great Zimbabwe University

 

TapiwaMudyahoto

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Correspondence Address

Francis EmsonDakwa

Lecturer in Special Needs Education

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O. Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

Cell +263775968686

Email: dakwafrancis@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

 

Impact of epilepsy on children’s academic performance

 

Abstract

Most children living with epilepsy are typical learners who would, under normal conditions, perform well academically. This is not always the case with children exhibiting complex and more severe forms of epilepsy in which the epilepsy is associated with known or suspected brain abnormalities. For some children, frequent seizures and medical investigations may result in several days of missed school, consequently compromising learning. It is the intention of this study to examine the relationship between epilepsy and school performance. The authors shall regard epilepsy as a seizure disorder resultant from an abnormal discharge of electric energy in the brain. It is our conviction that the results emanating from this study will generate debate leading to adoption of effective strategies for managing learners living with epilepsy within classroom situations. A sample of 30 children living with epilepsy was conveniently selected from 5 schools within an urban environment in Masvingo, Zimbabwe. The children were interviewed to determine problems they encountered, which impacted on their learning.Twenty teachers teaching these children were also interviewed to solicit their impressions and experiences regarding the impact of epileptic seizures on children’s academic performance. The study revealed that mild epilepsy and frequent medication impacted on school performance. Epileptic seizures emanating from extensive brain abnormalities also resulted in specific learning difficulties and developmental delays. Appropriate strategies that encompass individual education programmes should be employed to assist learners living with epilepsy.

 

 

 

Inclusion of learners with visual impairments in regular school Contexts-A Zimbabwean perspective.

Francis EmsonDakwa

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Correspondence Address:

Francis EmsonDakwa

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O. Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

Cell: +263 775968686

Email: dakwafrancis@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

Inclusion of learners with visual impairments in regular school contexts-A Zimbabwean perspective.

 

Abstract

The global trends regarding the education of learners with disabilities focuses on their inclusion in the regular education systems. Inclusion is discussed in this paper as the practice of placing children with disabilities beside their peers for education, employment, leisure activities and life. Although inclusion of children with visual impairments was established in 1962 in Zimbabwe, it has not been easy to achieve the goals of inclusion. While successes have been scored throughout the years, daunting challenges have periodically surfaced. It is these challenges that the author will present in this paper as food for thought for practitioners, collaborative partners and others interested. The content analysis approach will be employed to analyse data. It is hoped that the recommendations emanating from this discourse will further enlighten our need to treat children with exceptionalities as equal partners in every sphere of life.

Key terms:inclusion; visual impairments; blind; low vision

 

 

 

 

Poverty-related causes of school dropout -Dilemma of the girl child in rural Zimbabwe

Francis EmsonDakwa, Lecturer in Special Needs Education: Great Zimbabwe University: Cell: +263775968686. Email: dakwafrancis@yahoo.com

 

CrispenChiome, Lecturer in Educational Management, Zimbabwe Open University: Cell:

+263772905274 email: chrischiom@yahoo.ca

 

Raphinos Alexander Chabaya, Regional Campus Director: Masvingo Regional Campus, Zimbabwe Open University, email: chabayaalexander@yahoo.com

 

Correspondence address:

Francis EmsonDakwa

Lecturer in Special Needs Education

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O. Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

Cell: +263775968686

 

 

Poverty-related causes of school dropout -Dilemma of the girl child in rural Zimbabwe

 

Abstract

The study sought to examine teachers’ and heads’ perceptions on the poverty-related causes of school dropout among girls in rural Zimbabwe. A sample of 40 randomly selected teachers and five heads from five schools participated in the study. An open-ended questionnaire was administered to the teacher sample while heads were interviewed. The content analysis approach was used to analyse data. From the findings, poverty emerged as the underlying cause of school dropout, combined with more obvious causes such as HIV and AIDS, monetary constraints, attitudes towards education, cultural practices, religious practices, misconduct, schools and teachers, and peer influence. The findings indicate a need for communal support systems to be encouraged to assist struggling families who cannot afford to pay school fees for their children. Cultural and familial practices should be addressed to afford girl children opportunities to attend school until they meaningfully complete their studies.

Key words:females, poverty, school dropout, Zimbabwe

 

 

 

 

Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms: Striving for Effective Strategies for rural South African schools

  • M. Buka and J. M. Molepo

ABSTRACT

This paper purports to report on a pilot study conducted in two rural primary schools in one largely rural and poverty-stricken province of South Africa on inclusive classroom teaching practices (ICTP). Research on inclusive education (in South Africa) indicated that most schools remain inflexible and less friendly to people with learning barriers Such schools lack innovation in the implementation of inclusive education principles in the learning and teaching processes suitable for all learners with or without learning barriers. Recent research in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, in particular, portrays that principals and teachers had high negative attitude against learners experiencing barriers to learning (LEBTL). Since 1994 the South African education system has been unstable, experienced drastic non-stop changes, vulnerable to draw-backs and doubt by beneficiaries.

The study sought to explore the ICTPs of grade 3 teachers. It investigated both teaching and learning strategies used in inclusive classrooms (IC) including pedagogic models. Two teachers were purposively selected, interviewed and observed from a population of approximately 145 in one education district. A qualitative mode of inquiry was used in which a case study design was used. Data were manually-analyzed for the provision of results. The study revealed that LEBTLs are still marginalized and minimally-supported in classroom context even after  ten years of the adoption of the Education White Paper 6 policy document of 2001 (which later became an act of parliament). Teachers were left on their own and found themselves fumbling They subsequently found themselves resorting to old-fashioned and inadequate teaching methods. They also reported to receive minimal support from malfunctioning and largely bradarless and ill-prpared and trained school-based support teams and district-based support teams, which were established as some of the requirements of the act. The consequences of this mal-teaching practice tended to impede actualization of basic learning outcomes (ABLOs) and quality education needed by learners in the inclusive classrooms. Such practices did not assist to lessen or remove barriers to learning.

Key words: teaching practice, inclusive classrooms, barriers to learning, cooperative learning, pedagogic models and marginalization.

*Corresponding author: bukamq@gmail.com. Or mmolepo@wsu.ac.za

 

Methodological Alternatives in technical education in the subject: Acid – Base.

 

Tatiana Kuleshova andGonçalves, EzequielGuindaJúnior

Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of de Science, Department of Chemistry , MAPUTO, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

 

 

This paper presents a research theme: Methodological Alternatives in technical education in the subject: Acid – Base. The overall objective of this work is: To study themethodological alternatives that can be used in technical education duringteaching theme “Acid – base.”
In terms of structure, the work is organized into five (5) chapters and contains five (5)attachments. To achieve the objective of this work were made to bibliographic research, preparation of posters that were used in subsequent experiments in educationalCommercial Institute of Maputo and performing chemistry experiments in the classroomwith the use of local materials.
Throughout the paper the methodological orientation to teach the subject Acid -Base
For pedagogical experiments have been used successfully teaching two classesapproached the previous quarter. One of the classes was used as the experimentalclass (where they were used teaching materials- posters and carried out chemicalexperiments) and the other as the control group (where no signs were used and notcarried out chemical experiments). After the teaching experiment, it was found that theexperimental group the percentage of the pedagogical use was higher than inthecontrol group where there was a lower percentage.

 

Keywords: local material, learning, chemical experiments, students.

 

 

 

 

O papel de Jogos didacticos no desenvolvimento do sistema de tecnologias educacionais  do ensino

 

Tatian Kuleshova e Damicenca Lavinia

UEM,Faculdade de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica

RESUMO

No tratamento teórico sobre o jogo didático,  feito na base da revisão na literatura científica que dignifica a investigação, pois apresenta uma relação de trabalhos científicos sobre jogos didáticos específicos para a área de Educação química, dificilmente encontrada em artigos científicos que tratam desta temática . Na bibliografia analizada discutem-se os diferentes níveis de interação entre jogo e o jogador, elegendo quatro níveis que permitem a análise qualitativa de jogos didáticos, com a intenção de facilitar a identificação das suas propostas  para o ensino de Química. São destacadas as seguintes actividades : cooperação; competição; fabricação e construção coletiva; histórias em quadrinhos; e expressão corporal. Baseado nesses quatro níveis de interação, apresentam-se propostas de jogos didáticos especificamente para o ensino de Química.

Para o primeiro nível de interação, podem ser mencionados os jogos na base dos estudos de Equilíbrio Químico, Lei de Lavoisier, Ligação Metálica e Reagente Limitante. Os jogos com os titulos de  Ludo Químico, Pif-Paf Iônico, Trunfo Químico e Dominó Químico são exemplos do segundo nívelde interação. Os jogos para esses níveis de interação são fáceis de serem aplicados na Educação Básica, portanto de utilidade aos professores. Como pode se ver, nao existe grande diferenca entre estes niveis.O terceiro nível de interação, manifesta-se com a efetiva manipulação pelo estudante com o material: alguns jogos como o de elaboração de jornais ou revistas entre os outros. Para tratar do IV e último nível de interação,podem servir, por exemplo, as histórias em quadrinhos e os jogos teatrais, entre outros.

Como objectivo geral do trabalho serviu: estudar as possibilidades de uso dos jogos didacticos  durante o leccionação do tema Reaccoes redox e obtenção e propriedades de  oxigenio.

Para atinguit objectivo geral, foram formulados seguintes  objectivos especificos:

Analizar o conteudo de programa com finalidade de enquadramento de J.D. na aula de Quimica;

Elaborar planos de lição na base de realização de J.D.

Realizar J.G. na sala de aula

Avaliar o impacto educacional de J.D.

O trabalho foi feito na Escola Secundaria Josina Machel na 8 classe. Como amostra serviu todos os 40 alunos da turma. Durante a realização do estudo, os alunos participaram activamente na aulas, gostaram de realizar jogo e demonstraram interece bastante elevado para estudar Quimica.

 

Palavras-chave: jogo didactico, ensino, Quimica

 

 

 

The role of educational games in system development of educational technology education

TatianKuleshovaDamicenca and Lavinia

EMU, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, MAPUTO, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

In the theoretical treatment of the teaching game, made on the basis of the review in the scientific literature that dignifies the investigation, because it presents a list of scientific papers on educational games specific to the area of Chemical Education, hardly found in scientific papers dealing with this issue. Analyzed in the literature discusses the different levels of interaction between game and player, electing four levels that allow for qualitative analysis of educational games, with the intention of facilitating the identification of its proposals for the teaching of chemistry. The author identifies the following activities: cooperation, competition, manufacturing and construction conference, comic strips, and body language. Based on these four levels of interaction, we present proposals for didactic games specifically for the teaching of chemistry.

For the first level of interaction, may be mentioned the games on the basis of studies of Chemical Equilibrium, Law of Lavoisier, Metal Binding and Limiting Reagent. The games with the titles of Ludo Chemical, Ionic Pif-Paf, Trump Chemical and Chemical Dominoes are examples of the second nívelde interaction. The games for these levels of interaction are easy to apply in basic education, so useful to teachers. As you can see, there is no great difference between these levels. The third level of interaction, manifested by the effective manipulation by the student with the material: some games such as the development of newspapers or magazines among others. To address the fourth and last level of interaction, can serve, for example, comics and theater games, among others.

As a general objective of the work provided: to study the possibilities of using educational games in the teaching of the subject and obtaining redox reactions and properties of oxygen.

To atinguit general objective, the following specific objectives were formulated:

Analyze the contents of the program with the purpose of framing JD in Chemistry class;

Develop lesson plans based on the performance of JD

Make J.G. in the classroom

Evaluate the educational impact of J.D.

The work was done at JosinaMachel Secondary School in eighth grade. Served as a sample all 40 students in the class. During the study, students participated actively in class, liked to make the game and showed very high interece to study Chemistry.

 

Keywords: educational game, educational, Chemical

 

 

 

O papel de Jogos didacticos no desenvolvimento do sistema de tecnologias educacionais  do ensino

 

Tatian Kuleshova e Damicenca Lavinia

UEM,Faculdade de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica

RESUMO

No tratamento teórico sobre o jogo didático,  feito na base da revisão na literatura científica que dignifica a investigação, pois apresenta uma relação de trabalhos científicos sobre jogos didáticos específicos para a área de Educação química, dificilmente encontrada em artigos científicos que tratam desta temática . Na bibliografia analizada discutem-se os diferentes níveis de interação entre jogo e o jogador, elegendo quatro níveis que permitem a análise qualitativa de jogos didáticos, com a intenção de facilitar a identificação das suas propostas  para o ensino de Química. São destacadas as seguintes actividades : cooperação; competição; fabricação e construção coletiva; histórias em quadrinhos; e expressão corporal. Baseado nesses quatro níveis de interação, apresentam-se propostas de jogos didáticos especificamente para o ensino de Química.

Para o primeiro nível de interação, podem ser mencionados os jogos na base dos estudos de Equilíbrio Químico, Lei de Lavoisier, Ligação Metálica e Reagente Limitante. Os jogos com os titulos de  Ludo Químico, Pif-Paf Iônico, Trunfo Químico e Dominó Químico são exemplos do segundo nívelde interação. Os jogos para esses níveis de interação são fáceis de serem aplicados na Educação Básica, portanto de utilidade aos professores. Como pode se ver, nao existe grande diferenca entre estes niveis.O terceiro nível de interação, manifesta-se com a efetiva manipulação pelo estudante com o material: alguns jogos como o de elaboração de jornais ou revistas entre os outros. Para tratar do IV e último nível de interação,podem servir, por exemplo, as histórias em quadrinhos e os jogos teatrais, entre outros.

Como objectivo geral do trabalho serviu: estudar as possibilidades de uso dos jogos didacticos  durante o leccionação do tema Reaccoes redox e obtenção e propriedades de  oxigenio.

Para atinguit objectivo geral, foram formulados seguintes  objectivos especificos:

Analizar o conteudo de programa com finalidade de enquadramento de J.D. na aula de Quimica;

Elaborar planos de lição na base de realização de J.D.

Realizar J.G. na sala de aula

Avaliar o impacto educacional de J.D.

O trabalho foi feito na Escola Secundaria Josina Machel na 8 classe. Como amostra serviu todos os 40 alunos da turma. Durante a realização do estudo, os alunos participaram activamente na aulas, gostaram de realizar jogo e demonstraram interece bastante elevado para estudar Quimica.

 

Palavras-chave: jogo didactico, ensino, Quimica

 

 

 

 

The role of educational games in system development of educational technology education

 

TatianKuleshovaDamicenca and Lavinia

EMU, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, MAPUTO, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

In the theoretical treatment of the teaching game, made on the basis of the review in the scientific literature that dignifies the investigation, because it presents a list of scientific papers on educational games specific to the area of Chemical Education, hardly found in scientific papers dealing with this issue. Analyzed in the literature discusses the different levels of interaction between game and player, electing four levels that allow for qualitative analysis of educational games, with the intention of facilitating the identification of its proposals for the teaching of chemistry. The author identifies the following activities: cooperation, competition, manufacturing and construction conference, comic strips, and body language. Based on these four levels of interaction, we present proposals for didactic games specifically for the teaching of chemistry.

For the first level of interaction, may be mentioned the games on the basis of studies of Chemical Equilibrium, Law of Lavoisier, Metal Binding and Limiting Reagent. The games with the titles of Ludo Chemical, Ionic Pif-Paf, Trump Chemical and Chemical Dominoes are examples of the second nívelde interaction. The games for these levels of interaction are easy to apply in basic education, so useful to teachers. As you can see, there is no great difference between these levels. The third level of interaction, manifested by the effective manipulation by the student with the material: some games such as the development of newspapers or magazines among others. To address the fourth and last level of interaction, can serve, for example, comics and theater games, among others.

As a general objective of the work provided: to study the possibilities of using educational games in the teaching of the subject and obtaining redox reactions and properties of oxygen.

To atinguit general objective, the following specific objectives were formulated:

Analyze the contents of the program with the purpose of framing JD in Chemistry class;

Develop lesson plans based on the performance of JD

Make J.G. in the classroom

Evaluate the educational impact of J.D.

The work was done at JosinaMachel Secondary School in eighth grade. Served as a sample all 40 students in the class. During the study, students participated actively in class, liked to make the game and showed very high interece to study Chemistry.

 

Keywords: educational game, educational, Chemical

 

  •  
  •  
  • Improving Physics Teachers’ Classroom Practices in High Schools: the Inclusion of Demonstration Experiments

 

Prof. Adriano R. Sacate

adrianosacate@uem.mz

Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

This project aims at improving teachers’ classroom practices in the teaching of secondary school Physics that develops creative thinking, problem solving skills, and a deep understanding of concepts by means of an ongoing professional development project of science teachers supported by especially designed curriculum materials, including teacher modules, student activity manuals and kits. The focus of the present study is to investigate how classroom practices of Grade 12 Physics teaching can be improved. The study aims to introduce the topic of Mechanics in Physics to Physics teachers in teacher education in Inhambane, Mozambique by developing a learning curriculum materials in the form of teachers’ materials, students’ worksheets and toolkits. The topic of Mechanics in Physics is a part of a workshop module that will be developed in order to make Physics teachers understand what the topic of Mechanics in Physics is and how to implement it in the classroom. The main contents of this module include: (1) overview of the theory of Mechanics in Physics; (2) learning what are materials and how to design them; (3) learning how to teach the content incorporating small demonstration experiments in the classroom; and (4) learning how to assess the pupils in the Mechanics in Physics classroom lessons. The project will be under the responsibility of the research team of the Department of physics, Faculty of Sciences and will operate within the parameters of the current syllabus approved by the Ministry of Education and Culture and in use in schools.

 

 

 

SASE Abstract

Taboos and the pragmatics of teaching HIV and AIDS at primary school. Views from selected primary school teachers in Chipadze, Bindura.

 

Taurai Chinyanganya  taurai chinyanganya <chinyanganyatau@yahoo.co.uk>

This study is conducted in the context of Shona culture, where sex and sexuality are regarded as taboo subjects. In most African societies there are certain subjects that cannot be discussed openly, more so among the younger generations, for example primary school going pupils. Culturally, it is regarded as a taboo to mention things to do with sex. HIV/AIDS being largely a sexual condition, it was hypothesized that classroom practitioners face problems in communicating about and teaching HIV/AIDS/STI information. The study will be carried out in Bindura urban Primary Schools and will seek information on how educators develop and use linguistic techniques and strategies to inculcate HIV/AIDS knowledge to the young ones without breaching social expectations and taboo limits. Data will be Collected # through the use of a questionnaire and an interview from a random sample of 60 # teachers selected from four Bindura primary schools. It is hoped that the study will throw some insight into the strategies by which teachers teach about sex and sexuality, without being offensive to social expectations. The study will also find out what effect these strategies have on the import of the messages in the effort to reduce the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in our schools.

 

 

The major goal of HIV/AIDS education in schools is to equip children with concepts, skills, knowledge, attitudes, values and facts necessary for them to freely discuss issues relating to sexuality, risky behaviours and practices. Children are expected to experience behavior change that will help them become aware of, and avoid situations that place them at risk in terms of HIV infection. Instruction is the tool teachers use to put across HIV/AIDS content. However, one of the most common problems teachers face as they work with children is to select a suitable   vocabulary to deliver the content. This problem is particularly acute when seen in the context of Shona culture that places sanctions on the use of vocabulary pertaining to sex and sexuality. Thus, in the process of organizing for instruction, teachers find themselves in a dilemma of having to put across facts about sex and sexuality on the one hand, and to avoid vocabulary that is considered socially offensive on the other. The outcome of this situation is the creation of a “culturally acceptable” vocabulary to help teachers transmit knowledge which leads to the question about the extent to which the strategy conveys the intended meanings on sex, sexuality and HIV/AIDS. This study, therefore, seeks to explore and to describe the range of vocabulary adopted by teachers during the process of delivering HIV/AIDS education lessons that deal with sex and sexuality. The study will also seek to determine the extent to which the strategies used by teachers transmit the intended knowledge about sex, sexuality and HIV/AIDS to children.

 

 

 

Evaluation of the knowledge on energy sources in the basic teaching: case of Maputo

Province

Dinelsa Machaieiea , Valery Kuleshovb e Adriano Sacatec

a,b,cDepartment of Phisics, Eduardo Mondlane University

 

adinelsa.machaieie@uem.mz

 

bvalkuleshov@uem.mz

 

cadrianosacate@uem.mz

 

 

Summary 

The production, conversion and use of the energy have a great impact on the atmosphere and a lot of times the citizens doesn’t have notion on the environmental impact provoked by the sources of energy that they use, opting a lot of times to use sources of energy that affect the atmosphere in a negative plenty way. The knowledge of the impact that the several sources of energy have can in a certain way to influence the citizens’ choices. As teachers and students have a great influence in the community, these can be used as vehicle of that information however, the depth of his knowledge is not known about those subjects. Therefore it was drawn this research with the intention of evaluating the depth of the teachers’ knowledge and students of the basic teaching of Maputo province in matters related with the energy sources and his impact on the atmosphere. For data collection was used a questionnaire. This was supplied 183 teachers and 388 students of 16 schools of Maputo Province chosen by the simple random method. The research is quantitative and the analysis of data was made with the aid of the statistical package Excel. As final result, was verified that the participants have some knowledge about energy sources although they have some doubt mainly in what it concerns the differentiation among renewable sources and you not renewable energy. It can be noticed by the results of this research that the knowledge of the impact of the several sources of energy is insignificant and that the teachers are not committed with the linked environmental subject with the use of the energy sources, mainly with the massive use of firewood and coal although it is known about the consequences that this practice carts. As form of solving these problems would be praiseworthy the enlargement of the chapters of teaching related with the use and use of the sources of energy and to involve students and teachers in simple tasks as cycles of lectures, demonstration experiences, study visits and other activities that allow a deeper contact with the problem in cause.

Keywords: energy sources, renewable energies, not renewable energies, basic teaching.

 

 

Examining the Maputo High School Teachers’ of Physics Conceptions with Regards the Character and Role of Experimentation in the Process of Teaching Physics

Emídio Muzila& Gil Mavanga&ValeriKuleshov

(Eduardo Mondlane University & Maputo Teachers Training College, Mozambique)

 

 

It is a common belief that the teachers’ conceptions on practices of teaching influence considerably the carrying out the process of teaching and learning in the classroom.  By the way, one of the most important constituents of the process of teaching and learning Physics is experimentation.

Experimentation, when properly executed, represents an essential component for the understanding of contents, for the growth of abilities and competencies, of attitudes and values, for the building of inter relations between the theory and the practice and between the students’ previous preconceptions and the new knowledge to acquire, as well as for the student’s motivation for learning.

Nevertheless, even in the schools, where the elementary conditions for teaching and learning have been created, some teachers avoid altogether the experimentation in their classes while the others use it in a purely mechanical form without any discussion or questioning, thus not contributing for promotion of any significant learning of Physics

In this presentation the authors planto examine the Maputo High School teachers’ of Physics (with or yet without the licentiate’s degree) conceptions about the experimentation in teaching Physics and how those influence their practices of teaching.

To gather the data the authors used different instruments and techniques, namely questionnaires, interviewsand ahandbook of observation of practical activities.

Key words: teachers’ conceptions, teaching Physics, experimentation

 

 

 

Comparative Study of High School Curricula of Physics of a Group of Countries, Belonging to SADC

Luís Braz & Gil Mavanga & Valeri Kuleshov

(Eduardo Mondlane University & Maputo Teachers Training College, Mozambique)

 

 

The opening of frontiers and the abolishment of entry visas between the SADC countries create perfect conditions for cooperation in the areas of business, commerce, tourism etc. However, facilitating peoples’ migration, this opening sooner or later may(or may not)result in imminent collision of different cultures. The impact of this collision, being, sure,of unpredictable kind, can anyway be made less dramatic, if the respectful states, cooperating in the area of education, harmonize the High School Curricula for the SADC area. This also includes sciences.

On the other hand, the harmonization will help the Mozambican state to carry out a curricular reform, which pretends to improve the quality of teaching, to challenge the requirements of the present time, to expand the space of choices in terms of possibilities of education, speaking (among other things)of scientific and technological education, to teach to learn to be and to learn to live together, etc.

This presentation is about a research currently carried out at the Department of Physics of the Eduardo Mondlane University dedicated to the analyses and evaluation of the High School Curricula of Physics in some SADC countries with the purpose to contribute to improvement of the National Curriculum, regarding the idea of harmonization.

To gather the data the authors used different instruments and techniques, namely questionnaires, interviews and direct study of the current High School Curricula of Physics mainly of the countries, neighboring Mozambique.

Key words: SADC, Curriculum of Physics, harmonization, reform.

 

 

 

 

Research Paper by Taona Mutengo

Midlands State University

Faculty of Social Sciences

Department of Music and Musicology

Cell: +263 773 168004

Email: mutengot@msu.ac.zw/  t_mutengo@yahoo.co.uk

 

Topic:

The integration and application of theory of music on Zimbabwe (Kwanongoma) Marimba performance practice in higher education.

 

Abstract

Theory of music is taught in schools and indeed colleges as a subject, module or course that refers to the theoretical framework of how musical sound can be written and interpreted. It involves the formulation of different scales, chords, chord progressions and other phenomena. However, interpreting all this knowledge on marimba as an instrument proves to be a tall order for many aspiring marimba students. They tend to disintegrate, for example, the chord formations learnt in class and their use on marimba especially in the keys of G Major and C Major in which most of the Kwanongoma marimba sets are designed. As a marimba performer, teacher and instructor, the researcher through qualitative research discovered that most of the students he taught were able to physically manipulate marimba through demonstration, imitation and rote learning but had little clue, for example, on the chord progressions of their pieces. This research was grounded on the Harmonic Theory and the Performance Theory and closely monitored Music and Musicology students doing marimba at Midlands State University. The researcher discovered through participation, interviews and observation that there is need to be careful in “modern” percussion teaching that students not just learn a few marimba pieces in their college years, but that they integrate theory and performance. The research also unveiled that most students forget that the goal of their marimba education is not just to learn an impressive piece that will score well during assessments, but to assemble a toolbox of skills that will allow them to efficiently tackle future keyboard challenges. Therefore, this research hoped to bridge the gap between music the theory and music the practice so as to ascertain the ability of students to marry the two. Indeed, practice without theory is “blind” and theory without practice is “dead”.

Key words: chord, progressions, performance; Kwanongoma marimba, integration, application, harmonic tonality

 

 Topic: Affirmative action and the Recruitment and Retention of women in Zimbabwe’s technical and vocational institutions. The case of Gweru and Kwekwe Polytechnics: 1995-2011.

 

 

By

 

Gilbert Tarugarira

 

 

Abstract

Promotion of gender equality is an international concern and a global priority. Although women’s entry into higher education has increased, they remain under-represented within the Science, Engineering and Technology sector. In an attempt to close the gap, a preferential policy-Affirmative action- was designed so that educational institutions would give preferred admission to women. The paper highlights how through affirmative action the technical and vocational institutions have attempted to bridge the gender disparities in the recruitment and retention of women students and staff. The paper investigates the educators’ and students’ perceptions, attitudes and beliefs regarding women’s access to, participation and success in the engineering departments against the background of affirmative action. A critique of the policy and policy recommendations are offered for further research and practice.

 

 

Promoting Local Knowledge for Teaching Physics

 

ValeriKuleshov& Adriano Sacate

Eduardo Mondlane University

 

Physics is a fundamental science, dealing with the most general properties of the world around us. The knowledge of its basics isimportant for the process of social and economic development of any country to be successful. In Mozambique the citizens acquire this knowledge primarily in High School through the teacher of Physics. Physics, being a complex science, demands that the teacher masters a lot of methodsof teaching and learning. However, due to the fact that the teaching and learning takes place in an African country, not all of these methods give the same results. Bearing in mind the inclination of African people for entertainment, show, and fun,the teacher must put in front suchunorthodox for teaching and learning Physics methods as games (indoors and outdoors) and simulations, role play and drama, creation and performance of hands-on experiments with the use of local materials, etc. Applying these methods, the teacher, at the same time, mustn’t forget to consider as often as possible an African element (local knowledge) whatsoever. So the training of a teacher (and lecturer) of Physics in Africa and for Africa can be considered satisfactoryonly if and when this teacher is capable of mastering the above mentionedand similar methods of teaching and learning with obligatory inclusion of local knowledge.

A group of lecturers and post-graduate students, belonging to the “Physics Education” sectionof the Department of Physics of the Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), currently carries out a research dedicated to establish a correlation between scientific knowledge and local knowledge and thusto promote some techniques for its introduction into the course of Didactics of Physics, which is the main topic of the specialty “Physics Education”, making part of both undergraduate and postgraduate curricula.Hence, using appropriate didactic material, the undergraduate and postgraduate students will have an opportunity to handle theoretically and practically the general and particular questions ofDidactics of Physicswith the African element included, so learning to teach different chapters of Physics, using local knowledge.The group hopes that the results of this researchwill help the future teachers of Physics to make their classes more adaptable for African audience.

 

 

 

O papel de Jogos didacticos no desenvolvimento do sistema de tecnologias educacionais  do ensino

 

Tatian Kuleshova e Damicenca Lavinia

UEM,Faculdade de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica

RESUMO

No tratamento teórico sobre o jogo didático,  feito na base da revisão na literatura científica que dignifica a investigação, pois apresenta uma relação de trabalhos científicos sobre jogos didáticos específicos para a área de Educação química, dificilmente encontrada em artigos científicos que tratam desta temática . Na bibliografia analizada discutem-se os diferentes níveis de interação entre jogo e o jogador, elegendo quatro níveis que permitem a análise qualitativa de jogos didáticos, com a intenção de facilitar a identificação das suas propostas  para o ensino de Química. São destacadas as seguintes actividades : cooperação; competição; fabricação e construção coletiva; histórias em quadrinhos; e expressão corporal. Baseado nesses quatro níveis de interação, apresentam-se propostas de jogos didáticos especificamente para o ensino de Química.

Para o primeiro nível de interação, podem ser mencionados os jogos na base dos estudos de Equilíbrio Químico, Lei de Lavoisier, Ligação Metálica e Reagente Limitante. Os jogos com os titulos de  Ludo Químico, Pif-Paf Iônico, Trunfo Químico e Dominó Químico são exemplos do segundo nívelde interação. Os jogos para esses níveis de interação são fáceis de serem aplicados na Educação Básica, portanto de utilidade aos professores. Como pode se ver, nao existe grande diferenca entre estes niveis.O terceiro nível de interação, manifesta-se com a efetiva manipulação pelo estudante com o material: alguns jogos como o de elaboração de jornais ou revistas entre os outros. Para tratar do IV e último nível de interação,podem servir, por exemplo, as histórias em quadrinhos e os jogos teatrais, entre outros.

Como objectivo geral do trabalho serviu: estudar as possibilidades de uso dos jogos didacticos  durante o leccionação do tema Reaccoes redox e obtenção e propriedades de  oxigenio.

Para atinguit objectivo geral, foram formulados seguintes  objectivos especificos:

Analizar o conteudo de programa com finalidade de enquadramento de J.D. na aula de Quimica;

Elaborar planos de lição na base de realização de J.D.

Realizar J.G. na sala de aula

Avaliar o impacto educacional de J.D.

O trabalho foi feito na Escola Secundaria Josina Machel na 8 classe. Como amostra serviu todos os 40 alunos da turma. Durante a realização do estudo, os alunos participaram activamente na aulas, gostaram de realizar jogo e demonstraram interece bastante elevado para estudar Quimica.

 

Palavras-chave: jogo didactico, ensino, Quimica

 

 

The role of educational games in system development of educational technology education

 

TatianKuleshovaDamicenca and Lavinia

EMU, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, MAPUTO, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

In the theoretical treatment of the teaching game, made on the basis of the review in the scientific literature that dignifies the investigation, because it presents a list of scientific papers on educational games specific to the area of Chemical Education, hardly found in scientific papers dealing with this issue. Analyzed in the literature discusses the different levels of interaction between game and player, electing four levels that allow for qualitative analysis of educational games, with the intention of facilitating the identification of its proposals for the teaching of chemistry. The author identifies the following activities: cooperation, competition, manufacturing and construction conference, comic strips, and body language. Based on these four levels of interaction, we present proposals for didactic games specifically for the teaching of chemistry.

For the first level of interaction, may be mentioned the games on the basis of studies of Chemical Equilibrium, Law of Lavoisier, Metal Binding and Limiting Reagent. The games with the titles of Ludo Chemical, Ionic Pif-Paf, Trump Chemical and Chemical Dominoes are examples of the second nívelde interaction. The games for these levels of interaction are easy to apply in basic education, so useful to teachers. As you can see, there is no great difference between these levels. The third level of interaction, manifested by the effective manipulation by the student with the material: some games such as the development of newspapers or magazines among others. To address the fourth and last level of interaction, can serve, for example, comics and theater games, among others.

As a general objective of the work provided: to study the possibilities of using educational games in the teaching of the subject and obtaining redox reactions and properties of oxygen.

To atinguit general objective, the following specific objectives were formulated:

Analyze the contents of the program with the purpose of framing JD in Chemistry class;

Develop lesson plans based on the performance of JD

Make J.G. in the classroom

Evaluate the educational impact of J.D.

The work was done at JosinaMachel Secondary School in eighth grade. Served as a sample all 40 students in the class. During the study, students participated actively in class, liked to make the game and showed very high interece to study Chemistry.

 

Keywords: educational game, educational, Chemical

 

 

 

 

An analysis of the extent to which staff division of labour in primary schools reflect gender sensitivity: the case of Masvingo urban.

                                      Dekeza Clyton

Great Zimbabwe University, Faculty of Education, Educational Foundations Dept.

          E-mail: dekezaclys@gmail.com

Abstract

This study was done to determine the level of gender awareness in the way primary schools operate. The study was motivated by the demand for gender equality in all spheres of life made by a myriad of social groups. One of the Millennium Development Goals is also clear on the need for gender equality. It was against this backdrop that the researcher embarked on this study with the view to find out if gender advocacy is yielding results. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design where a sample of three primary schools was randomly selected from a population of ten primary schools in Masvingo urban. The data was collected through documentary analysis, interviews and observations. The liberal and radical feminist perspectives informed the study. The researcher established that the administration of the sampled schools was dominated by men. Moreover, female teachers were found to be concentrated in lower grades while upper grades were dominated by male teachers. Furthermore, secretaries and office cleaners were mainly females while men dominated as grounds staff. There was no school with a school policy on gender sensitivity and the responsible authorities ratify the appointments of school heads and deputies. On the basis of the findings, the researcher recommended that the school administrators should allocate teachers to classes on merit rather than on gender basis. Moreover, primary schools should formulate school gender policy from the national gender policy to guide their operations.   

 

 

 

 

Main Theme: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

Sub-theme: Curriculum Development and Implementation

Topic: ODL Tutors’ Experiences in Curriculum Implementation in Search of Quality

Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika-a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (akmubika@gmail.com) and Barnabas Muyengwa a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (muyengwabb@gmail.com)

ODL tutors have varied backgrounds, expertise and experiences regarding curriculum implementation. Also of particular interest to the present researchers is the observation that ODL tutors are usually not housed at one place, but they are scattered countrywide and beyond. In regard to the search of quality curriculum implementation, ODL tutors are expected to operate on the same wavelength with conventional university lecturers. Interestingly, ODL tutors and conventional university lecturers are presumably operating on an uneven ground. Perhaps this is because of the delivery nature of ODL in which the ODL tutor appears to have more teaching and administrative responsibilities than the conventional university lecturer. This study deliberately seeks to unravel the degree to which ODL tutors’ experiences in curriculum implementation could pursue quality in the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management Programme at the Zimbabwe Open University. This is a qualitative case study which tries to generate new knowledge in the quality curriculum implementation of ODL programmes. The purposively sampled research participants will provide data by responding to quester views. The data gathered will be sorted and coded thematically to pave way for interpretation.

 

 

 

 

 

Sub-theme: Gender Issues in Education

Topic: A Comparative Study of the Performance in Educational Statistics by Gender at the Zimbabwe Open University

Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika -a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (akmubika@gmail.com) and Barnabas Muyengwa a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (muyengwabb@gmail.com)

 

University graduates sometimes face teething challenges in completing their programmes on time as a result of a core course called Introduction to Educational Statistics. Some students gain entry to the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management Degree without adequate mathematical background. It is against this background that the current case study seeks to compare the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management students’ performance in the Introduction to Educational Statistics by gender at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU). The study will contribute to the generation of new knowledge by proffering ways to improve students’ performance in the Introduction to Educational Statistics both at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels at the ZOU. Data will be collected by means of document analysis. Tutors and Regional Programme Co-ordinators shall respond to in-depth interviews soliciting for their perceptions of the students’ performance in Educational Statistics. Performance of students by gender will be compared using statistical tests, chiefly the t-test.

 

 

 

 

Sub-theme: Education and Development

Topic: Tutors’ Perceptions of the Efficacy of ODL in National Development

Tichaona Mapolisa- Senior lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (tichmapolisa@yahoo.co.uk/ tichmap@gmail.com) and Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika-a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (akmubika@gmail.com)

 

 

World over people are beginning to appreciate the contribution of ODL to development. In the past, the same people used to prejudice it in favour of conventional university education. This paper endeavours to find out tutors’ perceptions of the efficacy of ODL in national development. Tutors are the torch of their ODL institutions, hence, the need to find out how well they value the efficacy of ODL in national development. The study will in a big way attempt to explore the multi-faceted role of ODL to national development. The study focuses on the Zimbabwe Open University tutors’ (Regional Programme Co-ordinators’) perceptions of the efficacy of education to development. A qualitative study of this magnitude will contribute to the generation of theory of knowledge (Jill and Johnson, 2002). The research participants will be conveniently sampled. Convenience sample makes use of whoever research participant will be approached (Silverman, 2006). Data will be gathered using focus group interviews and telephone interviews. Themes that will have emerged will be interpreted descriptively and analytically.

 

 

 

 

Sub-theme: Leadership and Management

 

Topic: Strategies to Achieve Gender Equity in Leadership and Management Positions at the Zimbabwe Open University’s Faculties

Augustine Kudakwashe Mubika-a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (akmubika@gmail.com) and Tichaona Mapolisa- Senior lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (tichmapolisa@yahoo.co.uk/ tichmap@gmail.com)

 

 

Faculties are assumed to have specific criteria for choosing leaders and managers to run the core business of the university. There appears to be dearth of information regarding how well gender equity is pursued in the choice of leaders and managers in certain universities. It is against this backdrop of the preceding observation that this study consciously intends to investigate strategies used at the Zimbabwe Open University’s Faculties to achieve gender equity in leadership and management positions. The study will generate new information on possible strategies to achieve gender equity in leadership and management positions in universities. The research participants shall constitute selected Zimbabwe Open University’s Regional Programme Co-ordinators, Programme Leaders, Department Chairpersons and Faculty Deans in order to gather their points of view regarding the phenomenon under study.   The research participants will be purposively sampled. This is a qualitative study that will use telephone interviews to gather data. Emerging themes from the data will be useful to draw interpretations that will culminate in the creation of new knowledge (Flick, 2009).

 

 

 

 

Theme: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

Sub-theme: Assessment in Education

Topic: Quality Assessment of Research Projects: Focus on Bachelor of Education in Educational Management Students’ Research projects at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU)

Tichaona Mapolisa- Senior lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (tichmapolisa@yahoo.co.uk/ tichmap@gmail.com) and Barnabas Muyengwa a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (muyengwabb@gmail.com)

The issue of quality assessment of research projects is topical in any university that desires to achieve quality education. Achievement of quality assessment of research projects is a result of effective research supervision (Mapolisa, Muyengwa, Chakanyuka, 2010). Of particular interest to the current researchers is to find out how well quality assessment could be enhanced by effective research supervision. The products of any university are measured by their ability to create knowledge, skills and attitude change. The focus of the present study is to explore quality assessment of research projects with particular reference to the Bachelor of Education in Educational Management students’ research projects at the ZOU. It is a qualitative case study of the ZOU’s three Regional Centres. Data will be collected using document analysis of 30 randomly sampled Bachelor of Education in Educational Management research projects. Twelve quota sampled research project supervisor-cum –examiners will be interviewed. Data will be thematically interpreted after content analysis.

 

 

 

 

Theme: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

Sub-theme: Teacher Education

Topic: Possibilities of Increasing Access to Teacher Education through Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in Zimbabwe

Barnabas Muyengwa a lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (muyengwabb@gmail.com) and  Tichaona Mapolisa- Senior lecturer in the Department of Education at the Zimbabwe Open University (tichmapolisa@yahoo.co.uk/ tichmap@gmail.com)

The question of offering teacher education through Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is a contentious issue in developing countries like Zimbabwe. Most adversaries of ODL seem to be content with the fact that teacher education can never be offered through ODL (Bukaliya and Kangai, 2011). Offering teacher education at a distance could be one of the panaceas to teacher shortage. It could also be one of the pathways to the production of a teacher of the right quality- a teacher who is capable of meeting the ever-changing demands and needs of one’s society and nation. This study examines possibilities to increase access to teacher education through ODL in Zimbabwe with particular reference to the Zimbabwe Open University’s experiences. Data will be generated from selected heads of schools, education officers and temporary teachers in Mashonaland West and Harare Provinces. Research participants who meet the study’ needs will be purposively sampled (Seale, 2006; Kumar, 2008). Research participants will respond to in-depth interviews. Research data will be subjected to didactic analysis prior to data interpretation that shall be carried out thematically.

 

THE QUALITY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT (ECD 4-5 YEAR OLD) PROGRAMMES IN HARARE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ZIMBABWE

Name:  Tendai Chikutuma

 

Belvedere Technical Teachers College

 

E-mail address: tchikutuma@gmail.com

 

Abstract

The study aims at establishing the quality of Early Childhood Development programmes in Harare primary schools in Zimbabwe. The research design will be a descriptive  survey which is  mainly qualitative in nature. Interviews, observations and document analysis will be the instruments  for the study.  Participants (26 heads, 26 ECD teachers, 26 parents and 780 ECD learners) will be drawn from primary schools from  26 suburbs of Harare . Qualitative data will be thematically  analysed  Quantitative data will be tabulated. The study hopes to help policy makers and implementers have a criteria of ascertaining quality ECD education.  Such information is also anticipated to enable primary schools to improve service delivery of ECD B learners. Policy makers will base the future of ECD programmes on the results of the study. It will also provide information that could contribute towards good practices and that promote ECD children’s rights to quality education and care. The study will also add to the limited literature in Zimbabwe on the quality of ECD education.

 

 

 

Dance Studies, a Neglected or  Skirted Aspect in the Zimbabwean  Primary School Curriculum?

Jairos Gonye

Great Zimbabwe University

P O Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

jairosgonye@gmail.com

Biographical data

Dance Studies, a Neglected or  Skirted Aspect in the Zimbabwean  Primary School Curriculum?

Abstract

The paper investigates the state and possibilities of dance studies in Zimbabwe using  5 selected primary schools of Masvingo Province. It sought to examine why it seems schools neglect to consider dance as a learnable subject that could guarantee learners a career in future yet the country  has examples of successful dance groups such as IYASA and Mambokadzi. This research is  steeped in a context where  pupil dance has not only featured at sports competitions but has also been subtly  used by administrators and politicians alike, where, at grand school gatherings, state commemorations, diplomatic gatherings and political functions, pupils have been asked to perform cultural dances. The assumption is therefore that to implement dance education is something most Zimbabweans would welcome, especially since the colonial education system had deliberately skirted African dance. Yet, thirty years after independence,  no Zimbabwean primary school formally instructs dance ( as independent of music)  despite dance being a fundamental aspect of Zimbabwean life. My  concern that the apparent realisation of the functional quality of dance by contemporary influential personalities was not complemented by germane efforts to have Zimbabwean dance heritage  put under the more permanent and enduring formal school system – have dance be formally taught in class just like Art or Music, or Mathematics –  spurred this study. I collected data  through observing what went on in five surrounding  schools concerning ‘dance education’, juxtaposing it with my observations of the practical utility of dance in the real world. I interviewed five heads of schools about how dance by pupils contributed to their schools’ cultural tone and whether they actively promoted dance education. I also held focus group discussions with fifty Bachelor of Education (Primary) In-service students (students undergoing further studies at my university) focussing on their preparedness and abilities to teach dance, the benefits and challenges primary school teachers faced in promoting the study or practice of dance. Apart from recording their utterances, I also requested them to write down what they thought about the apparent mismatch between dance as a ‘subject’ imbued with the promise and potential for future employment and dance as a missing subject at school. The research found that despite the interviewees’ understanding that dance is catered for in the  Ministry of Education, Sport, Art and Culture, for most of them, dance remains a pastime, unlike, say, Music and Art. Both school heads and teachers acknowledged the cultural and economic utility of dance  but  bemoaned lack of resources, skills and clear policy on dance studies.  Other challenges noted were shortage of trained dance teachers and uncertainty on which dances to be taught, and to whom, in a multicultural society. The research recommends that Ministry should encourage dance education in order to preserve and promote Zimbabwe’s  dance heritage in line with the country’s cultural  and indigenisation thrust. Hence, supporting dance studies would  boost and professionalise Zimbabwe’s Cultural industries while discouraging opportunists  who, instead of  nurturing and training pupils into skilled dancers, have been abusing  them as ready cultural ‘cannon fodder ’.

Keywords: dance studies; heritage; cultural dance; IYASA and Mambokadzi.

 

 

 

 

Child sexual abuse prevention strategies: Secondary school pupils’ perspectives

Pesanayi Gwirayi

Department of Educational Foundations, Midlands State University

 

This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50 {30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} female; mean age=15.42, SD=1.376). Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight child sexual abuse on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analysed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. While female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, while their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counselling, saying no to sexual advances and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA in order to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

Key words: child sexual abuse; secondary school pupils; human rights; Zimbabwe

Address correspondence to:

Professor Pesanayi Gwirayi

Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education

Midlands State University, P Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe

E-mail addresses: pgwirayi@gmail.com  & gwirayip@msu.ac.zw

 

 

Perceptions of Rural Adults on Contemporary Youth Dress: A Case of Mpandawana Growth Point, Zimbabwe

Dress as a concept includes all possible modifications and supplements to the body. Different cultures assign different meanings to dress symbols. The study was carried out to establish the perceptions of adults on contemporary youth dress, the study was informed by symbolic interactionist approach to fashion which enables people to consider the dynamics of social interactions in adoption of dress. A qualitative paradigm in form of a case study was used to facilitate studying the problem from a natural setting. Research participants were drawn from Mpandawana growth point and the surrounding villages ( Gutu district) because the case had both the rural folk and contemporary youth as it accommodated people from different cultures. A sample of 20 adult participants was used. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to solicit data on adult’s views about youth dress. Observations were also done to establish the nature of dress by the youth who lived in the area of study. Data collected were presented in narrative form. Findings were that contemporary youth dress was viewed as lacking modesty. It was also established that some meanings of dress symbols were not shared due to ethnocentrism. The study recommends the need to conscientise the rural adult folk on globalization and its implications. The study also encouraged the need to consider modesty aspects when either constructing or choosing dress items.

Nyaradzo Jinga

Great Zimbabwe University, Department of Curriculum Studies

Email: nyajinga@yahoo.com

 

 

Performance Management System: A tool for accountability or control in Zmbabwean education?

Kadodo Webster, Great Zimbabwe University, Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe. kadodowe@yahoo.com & kadodotakweb@cooltoad.com

This research examines the functionality of the Performance Management System that is used in education in Zimbabwe. The Performance Management System was introduced in the education system a couple of years ago with a view of quality control in the education delivery system. The aim, therefore, was to ensure that quality teaching and management were taking place in schools and colleges. However, there are sentiments from some personnel in the education sector to the effect that the said management system was being abused and used more as a control measure for subordinates and had very little effect (if any) on the actual quality of education delivery in class. This research, therefore, examines the functionality of the Performance Management System used in education in Zimbabwe

 

 

 

 

THE IMPACT OF LAND REFORM ON EDUCATION DELIVERY IN MUSHAGASHE PURCHASE AREA

Mutami, Nicholus nmutami@gmail.com Great Zimbabwe University

Kadodo, Webster kadodoweb@yahoo.com Great Zimbabwe University

Bhala, Timothy timkabhala@gmail.com Great Zimbabwe University

This research examines the impact of land reform on education delivery in Mushagashe Purchase Area in Masvingo District of Masvingo Province. The research comes at the backdrop of a heightened hype about land reform without due considerations on its impact on education delivery. These researchers believe that it is prudent to examine the impact of land reform on education delivery in Zimbabwe because education is critical for continued existence of human kind. Purchase areas, as argued in this article, have had a double impact regarding education delivery. Initially as purchase areas, the farm succession system in the old tenure system created problems regarding education delivery, and so was the recent land reform. This article, therefore, examines the impact of both, the colonial and the recent land reform on education delivery with special reference on Mushagashe Purchase Area. In our view, there has not been any notable research on the impact of land reform on education delivery. It is with that in mind that this research may perchance open debate on some of the critical factors that need to be considered before any land reform is initiated.

 

 

TRADITIONAL EXPERTSAND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE DANDE VALLEY OF  ZIMBABWE: IMPLICATIONS AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS
Anyway Katanha

Lecturer, Geography and Environmental Studies, the Zimbabwe Open University
katanhaa@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: Subtheme: Indigenous Knowledge Systems

This paper examines the importance of traditional indigenous knowledge systems in the Dande Valley of Zimbabwe in the context of climate change. Information was extracted through key informant interviews with local indigenous experts who have lived the experiences of a changing environment and have developed skills to match changes as established through observations and use them to mitigate the effects of climate change.,Local indigenous experts in the field of Astronomy and Plant Phenology who live in this risky fragile environment  Dande ,have developed respectable, intricate prediction systems that have  helped their communities to mitigate and adapt to climate change as well as secure income and food consumption.An intergral part of these systems are the knowledge systems that help households plan for the future events and decrease uncertainty.  Results revealed that indigenous knowledge systems have been given less attention as their importance is underpinned in addressed development projects. The paper  highlights and recommends some promising adaptive strategies that could be integrated with scientific methods   currently in use by or possible for producers, rural communities and local institutions to mitigate climate change effects while preserving the livelihoods and environmental and social sustainability.
Keywords: Indigenous Knowledge, Sustainable Agriculture, Climate Change, Soil,

Student acceptance of e-assessment in higher education

 

Mr Kent, D. : Department of Educational Psychology & Special Education

Mr Zwane E.X.S. : Department of Educational Psychology & Special Education

Mrs Mbatha, N.N. Department of Educational Psychology & Special Education

University of Zululand, Private Bag X 1001, kwaDlangezwa, 3886

dkent @pan.uzulu.ac.za

ezwane@pan.uzulu.ac.za

nnmbatha@pan.uzulu.ac.za

PAPER PRESENTED AT THE 39TH SASE ANNUAL CONFERENCE HELD AT GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY ON 4-6 OCTOBER 2012

Conference theme:  Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

Sub- theme:  ASSESSMENT in  EDUCATION

ABSTRACT

E-assessment is becoming the accepted form of continuous assessment for modern education especially large classes. It is a medium that can invoke a positive learning approach through the feedback mechanism available on the e-assessment tool. Never the less, little is known about students’ attitude on the e-assessment. In this research, the researcher constructed questionnaire was utilised to investigate University of Zululand students’ attitudes on e-assessment in four areas of perceived usefulness (PU) computer generated tests, perceived ease of use (PEOU) of computer generated tests, attitude toward use (ATU) of computer generated tests, and behavioural intention (BI) of using computer generated tests. The goal of the study was to investigate whether the students accept computer generated testing. A sample of 41 BEd level 3 students from a population of 82 students who took part in two computer generated tests during the semester participated in the study. As derived from the analysis of the responses to the questionnaire, the e-assessment system is well accepted and the majority of the statements were positively confirmed. Usefulness and ease of use proved to be key determinants of the acceptance and usage of e-assessment. The most notable responses were that computer generated tests were ideal and liked very much (98{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}), computer generated tests were easy to use (93{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}), computer generated tests were useful and efficient, and finally 76{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} would wish more modules would use computer generated tests in the next semester.  The results are compared with similar studies focused on e-learning acceptance. The implications, both for the application of e-assessment as well as for the educational community, are also discussed.

 

 

 

 

Learning Outcomes of ‘Publishing Research’ as understood by lecturers at one university in South Africa

Dr SB Khoza (Bheki)

Chair: Curriculum Studies & Educational Technology

School of Education

University of KwaZulu-Natal

South Africa

 

Simon Bhekimuzi Khoza <Khozas@ukzn.ac.za>

Abstract

This article draws on a case study of sixlecturers who were teaching Publishing Research in 2010 at one of the universities in South Africa. Publishing Researchwas offered by two campuses of this institution.This article not only gives these lecturers a voice but also identifies and defines the intended, implemented and attained learning outcomes for the module. The six lecturers claimed to be using the same learning outcomes in helping students to achieve the aims if the module but the results of the module tell different stories about the achievement of the learning outcomes. Data collection occurred through document analysis and semi-structured interview.A priori analysis theory (Dhunpath and Samuel 2009 or Freeman and Richards 1996) was used as a framework and this produced the three themes, while the article is framed by Bloom’s Taxonomies of learning. This article prioritises the use of the three domains of Bloom’s Taxonomies (cognitive, skills and value / attitude) in formulating learning outcomes of the module in order to contribute positively towards the well being of the module.

Key words: Aims, objectives, intended / implemented / attained learning outcomes, lecturers and Publishing Research

 

Interactive Model of Programme Planning :a route to the developmentof curricula and learning programmes for adult learners

Ms N P Khumalo (Correspondence Author)

University of Zululand

Private Bag X1001

KwaDlangezwa

3886

Republic of South Africa

E-mail: pnkhumal@pan.uzulu.ac.za

Tel: (27) 035 9026219

(27) 083 59659126

 

Dr M A N Duma

University of Zululand

Private Bag X1001

KwaDlangezwa

3886

Republic of South Africa

E-mail: mduma@pan.uzulu.ac.za

Tel: (27) 035 9026495

(27) 073 6745439

 

 

Abstract

 

The aim of this article is to explore Interactive Model of Programme Planning as a course to the development of curricula and learning programmes for adult learners. Programme designers and instructors facilitate learning and teaching in a particular context. Their experience and skills are important factors influencing the instructional techniques and classroom practice. In this conceptual paper the focus will be on the following components:

  • Establishing  a basis for the planning process
  • Conducting a  training need assessment
  • Developing programme objectives
  • Planning and preparing for the transfer of learning
  • Formulating evaluation plans

The paper is concluded byoutlining the assessment criteria of Interactive Model of Programme Planning

namely:

  • The interpretation  and provision of learning programmes and curricula
  • The development, evaluation and recording of plans for original learning programmes and curricula for delivering a related set of learning programmes

Keywords: adult learners; curricula; interactive model of programme planning;learning programmes

 

 

 

 Topic:  Is the Emotional Intelligence levels of Teacher Training students at the Central University of Technology high enough?

Sub-Theme: Teacher Education

Oral presentation

Presenter & contact details: Johannes Andreas Gerhardus BEUKES

School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities, Central University of Technology, Free State, Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa.

Tel:     +27 (0) 833638782 (Cell)                               +27 (0) 51 507 3838 (Office)

Email address:  jbeukes@cut.ac.za

Abstract:

The goal of the education system is to increase cognitive capacity, competencies and skills such as acquiring new knowledge, recalling facts and figures and applying this information to reasoning, understanding and solving problems, and therefore teachers and lecturers traditionally use Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains.  The competencies and skills as described by Bloom are measured by standardised intelligence tests.   Society takes it for granted that the higher a person’s IQ (Intelligence quotient) tested, the better he will perform at school level.

But what happens after school?  While cognitive intelligence may be able to predict quite well how one will perform in school, it predicts very little else in the way of human performance and interaction after school.  Wagner concluded that IQ alone predicts just 6 to 10 percent of career success. It has been argued for over a century, as early as Charles Darwin, that something is missing from the human performance formula that is needed to explain why some people do very well in life while others do not, irrespective of how academically intelligent they may be. Emotional intelligence includes “the ability to perceive, appraise and express emotion accurately and adaptively; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; the ability to access and generate feelings where they facilitate cognitive activities and adaptive action; and the ability to regulate emotions in oneself and others” all of these skills are necessary for the teacher to function successfully in the classroom.

The question is; does the modern teacher have the necessary EQ skills?

 

 

 

 

OBSTACLES IN THE PATH OF IMPLEMENTING TECH/VOC EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZIMBABWE

Mavis Rufaro Chikoore and Stenford Museva

Mavis Chikoore <mavisrufaro@yahoo.com>

Department of Technical Education: University of Zimbabwe

ABSTRACT

The study sought to establish obstacles of implementing Technical/Vocational (Tech/Voc) education in secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Ten secondary schools were identified in Harare province from which two cases were purposively sampled, that is, one that was still offering Tech/Voc subjects and the other one that had since failed to continue offering. Participants included two heads of the selected schools, four Tech/Voc teachers and twenty Tech/Voc pupils selected by stratified random sampling. A structured interview guide was used to collect data from the school heads and Tech/Voc teachers, and, focused group discussions were held with the two groups of pupils (one group of ten at each school). It was revealed through this study that the barriers to the implementation of the Tech/Voc curriculum in the secondary schools basically emanated from an unconducive environment. This was created by failure to communicate the vision to, and lack of professional development among the implementers, inadequacy of the necessary resources, poor evaluation and finally, failure to sustain the programme. It was concluded that the implementation of Tech/Voc Education in secondary schools is confronted by a lot of constraints yet it remains a worthwhile move. It was therefore recommended that the careful planning that was done before the programme was implemented be coupled with the creation of a context that is conducive to the changes brought in by the new subjects. This can be done through effectively communicating the vision of the programme to the implementers as well as upgrading their knowledge and skills, and providing the necessary resources to meet the demands of the programme. Considering how the programme will be evaluated and sustained at initial stages was also recommended.

 

 

 

 

Author: Tracy Rutendo Chikumbu (lecturer at Bondolfi Teachers’ College)

E-mail address: chikumbutracy@yahoo.com

 

Title of paper

 

Great Zimbabwe University and Teacher Education in Masvingo Province

 

Abstract

The study examines how Great Zimbabwe University is bound up with the development of Teacher Education in Masvingo Province. The paper focuses on the aspect of manpower training and development of lecturers at Bondolfi, Masvingo and Morgenster Teachers’ Colleges. The study analyses the educational qualifications of lecturers at the colleges for three different years which include one year before Great Zimbabwe University was established and two of the years after it was set up. The paper argues that the acquisition of Great Zimbabwe University degree qualifications alone does not necessarily lead to qualitative development of Teacher Education. This paper proposes that the three teachers’ colleges and Great Zimbabwe University engage seriously in the interests of the development of Teacher Education. The current programmes should be evaluated and assessed. Collaborative research involving the university and the colleges should be undertaken.

Key words

Teacher education, higher qualifications, primary school experience, in-service training, postgraduate studies, undergraduate studies,

 

 

 

 

 

Article title : The place of education in national development: A case study of the Zion Christian Church in Zimbabwe.

From time immemorial education has been regarded as the key to unlock developmental activities. It is the spring board upon which development spurs its seeds. However, the Zionists Churches at their inception were openly opposed to western education which was offered in mission schools.  This is echoed in the report of Reverend Orner (1932) of the American Board Mission at Mount Selinda that “the chief message with the Zionist people is that education is not a good thing and nobody ought to go to school…They also preached that those who have joined the church of the white missionaries have the mark of the beast on their foreheads, as mentioned in the book of Revelations…”. Such a teaching, he said, caused discontentment within many Africans and they dropped from schools in large masses. However there is now a paradigm shift on the aspiration of the Zionists and their leaders to educational advancements. It is in light of this background that this paper is set to unfurl the value that the Zion Christian Church is placing to education in its developmental activities today.   Interviews and documentary analysis shall be used to collect data for this paper.

VENGESAI CHIMININGE

Lecturer and Programme Leader- Religious Studies and Theology

Zimbabwe Open University

P.O.Box MP1119

Mt Pleasant

Harare

UNISA PhD Candidate- Religious Studies

Email – vchimininge@gmail.com

And

CLEMENCE MAKAMURE

Lecturer and Programme Leader- Philosophy (Zimbabwe Open University)

Research interests- Theology and Development

Email – c.makamure@yahoo.com

 

 

 

Abstract- SASE

Ledwini Chimwai

 lchimwai@gmail.com

An investigation of operational risk management systems used in manufacturing Small and Medium Enterprises in Masvingo urban (2009-2012).

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have been labelled as engines for economic growth the world over. In Zimbabwe however SME development has been hampered by a number of identified causes. Amongst them Mudavanhu et al (2011), Chidoko et al(2011) and Zindiye (2011), in their researches, identified some of the challenges as lack of skills in human resources, poor managerial skills, lack of capital, poor accounting systems, unavailability of credit, import competition, high cost of raw materials. The SMEs have thus failed to satisfy the engine for growth function as was expected by most economists. The current study aimed at finding out if SMEs are doing something about mitigating against the causes of failure and suggest ways that they can adopt to contribute to sustainable development. The descriptive survey design was used to describe the risk management systems in place. The study found out that internal controls such as security guards, generators in place of electric systems and in rare cases insurance are the risk management systems that SMEs rely on mostly. The study recommended entrepreneurial skills education as a pre-requisite for good and improved performance in SMEs. Owners/managers should communicate business objectives to all the employees through training and development, so that they own the objectives and ensure that there is continuity in the operations of the business resulting in minimal or zero losses and sustainable development.

KEY WORDS: Entrepreneurship skills, SMEs, operational risk management, training and development, sustainable development.

 

 

 

 Indigenous Knowledge: A Reservoir of Untapped Heritage

Rumbidzai Mashava Great Zimbabwe University Shabamashava@gmail.com and

Daniel Madzanire Great Zimbabwe University danielmadzanire@gmail.com

Abstract

Indigenous knowledge systems have claimed their place in the debate on knowledge for quite some time. The paper looks at how the rich and powerful marginalize minority ethnic group’s knowledge forms which remain not only invalidated but also fail to claim their space in the realm of knowledge.  In the case of Zimbabwe, the paper centers on how the Shangani knowledge is relegated to the periphery to an extent that the learners in their locality are hardly receiving instruction in vernacular. In an endeavor to get the full view of the Shangani practices and knowledge systems, the paper adopted a phenomenological research design. A sample of 48 participants comprising, 20 parents, 20 teachers and 8 school administrators were interviewed. Primary sources of information were analyzed. It emerged that the Shangani knowledge systems were largely ignored. Where their knowledge forms were found to be useful, it was made use of without acknowledgement. The knowledge forms were found to be largely unpreserved which rendered them vulnerable to use without professional recognition.

 

 

 

 

Makwanya, Peter and Dick, Mathias: Lecturers, Zimbabwe Open University – Midlands Region.

Emails: kwanyas67@yahoo.com         or dickmts@gmail.com

Cell: 263 773 780 574

SUB – THEME

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS

Research Topic

Integrating Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Christianity in Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation processes.

ABSTRACT

This paper seeks to strike a balance between Indigenous knowledge systems and Christianity in the fight against climate change. Both systems are fundamentals in the lives of citizens of any country and they offer a great divide in terms of belief affiliation. Consciously and unconsciously, many people have been subscribing to the two systems since time immemorial. As such, their roles cannot simply be wished away or viewed as peripheral. These two critical attributes play a pivotal role in informing decisions regarding the conservation and management of knowledge systems. Without undermining the eclectic roles played by the environmental and technological experts, who, in most cases are not familiar with the traditional customs, beliefs, taboos and related practices aligned to conservation issues, we say integration rather than the sidelining of the local communities and their belief systems should be seriously considered. It is hoped that, by merging the two bodies in climate change adaptation and mitigation processes, the missing link, that we dearly need may be found. The research methodology is qualitative in nature. Techniques such as interviews would be used to solicit vital information from the chiefs, headmen, pastors, bishops and environmental experts in order to come up with an integrated approach. Approaches such as document analysis and critical discourse analysis will also be used to unmask the linguistic ambiguities and deconstruct ideological inclinations. These analytical approaches will be used in relation to ethnography of communication in order to evaluate the moral, cultural, ethical and socio-economic implications to the society.

KEY WORDS: Indigenous, eclectic, ethnography, adaptation, mitigation

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Role of School Climate in Quality Assessment: A Case of Masvingo

Peri-urban Schools in Zimbabwe.

Abstract

Teachers’ effectiveness is enhanced by the whole school climate which includes the management style, the social environment, facilities, resources and interpersonal relationships. Reforms in the Zimbabwean education systems emphase skill based subjects and coursework within a difficult economic environment which may lead to difficulties in achieving the goals. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the role of the school climate in the quality of assessment in such a scenario. A qualitative paradigm and a descriptive survey design were chosen to realize the research objectives. Purposive sampling was used to select six schools from a district with a population of fifteen. Validated questionnaires and document analysis were used to collect relevant data from teachers and pupils of grades four to seven. Data were presented in descriptive and narrative forms and analysed thematically. The findings revealed that most school environments which included management and supervision systems were not conducive for effective teaching and learning therefore negatively affected the quality of assessment. It was therefore recommended that the government, stake holders and the school management systems work together in order  to minimize the challenges faced by institutions which negatively affect quality assessment.

 

Key Words:              Assessment; Climate; Effective; Management.

Sub theme:               Assessment  in Education

Presentation type:   Oral

Lokadhia Manwa    locadiamanwa@gmail.com

Great Zimbabwe University

 

 

 

An Economic Analysis of the Determinants of Entrepreneurship: The Case of Masvingo Informal Businesses

Clainos Chidoko

Great Zimbabwe University,  Department of Economics

Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

 

Clainos Chidoko <cchidoko@gmail.com>

 

 

ABSTRACT

Zimbabwe was characterized by worst economic performance since its independence in 1980. Capacity utilization shrank to 10{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} and unemployment rate was above 80{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} by 2008 as the private and public sector witnessed massive retrenchments. This led to dwindling employment opportunities in the formal labour market, forcing the jobless to join the informal sector. The formal sector is still struggling due to socio-economic factors  that hinder the local industry full capacity utilization. As a result many people are finding themselves engaging in informal businesses to make ends meet. However not all people have joined the informal sector as has witnessed by the number of people who left the country in droves to neighbouring countries and beyond in search of employment. It is against this background that this research seeks to make an economic analysis of the determinants  of entrepreneurship in Masvingo urban with an emphasis on the informal businesses. The research targets a sample of 150 informal businesses (50 from Rujeko Light industrial area, 50 from Mucheke Light industrial area and 50 from Masvingo Central Business District). The businesses include flea markets operators, furniture manufacturers, suppliers and producers of agricultural products, food vendors etc. The expected determinants include level of education, gender, age, marital status, dependants type of subjects studied at secondary school and vocational training.

Key words: Informal sector, Entrepreneurship, Education level, Employment

 

 

ABSTRACT

Name               :                       Mr TT Seipobi

E-mail address            :           tseipobi@cut.ac.za

 

 

CHALLENGES FACED BY PROMOTED SCHOOL MANAGERS IN XHARIEP DISTRICT SECONDARY SCHOOLS  – FREE STATE PROVINCE – RSA

 

Promoted school managers in this paper refer to heads of departments, deputy principals and principals.  The common practice in South Africa and in the Free State province in particular, is that these officials are promoted on the basis of their teaching experience and not on managerial or leadership experience.  This situation creates serious problems for them as they are thrown in the deep end and have to learn to swim on their own. Through trial and error some of them manage to succeed but others fell through.  In trying to establish themselves as managers as well as leaders they are sometimes confronted by resistance and anger from the subordinates, a situation which demoralises them and create feelings of isolation and alienation. This has been observed in Xhariep secondary schools where the researcher worked closely with school managers.

 

Given this background, the study was undertaken to explore the challenges experienced by promoted school managers upon assumption of duty. A quantitative approach using a descriptive survey research design was used. The instrument used to collect data was a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 78 school managers from secondary schools in the Xhariep district which is one of the five districts of the Free State province of South Africa.

 

The results showed among others, a lack of support for promoted school managers, as well as a lack of an integrated policy on induction. On the basis of these findings it was recommended that   there should be a greater focus on the quality of induction and professional support offered to promoted educational managers as well as a policy on the induction of school officials.

 

 

 

CHALLENGES AND TRAINING NEEDS OF PROMOTED SCHOOL MANAGERS IN XHARIEP DISTRICT SECONDARY SCHOOLS- FREE STATE PROVINCE

T.T. Seipobi

Academic Support and Development

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

E–mail: tseipobi@cut.ac.za

Wendy N. Setlalentoa

School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

E–mail: wsetlale@cut.ac.za

 

Abstract

 

In the Xhariep District, which falls under the Free State Department of Education (FSDoE) in South Africa, promoted school managers are left to fend for themselves. This exposes the school managers to stressful working conditions, such as being unaware of the school policies and procedures. The overall aim and objective of this study was to explore and identify challenges faced by promoted school managers in Xhariep secondary schools and also identify the type of training needs they require.

 

This descriptive study is quantitative in nature because it collected mostly numeric data and employed mainly quantitative techniques when analysing the data. The population under investigation consisted of secondary school principals, deputy principals, and heads of departments Xhariep District. The FSDoE’s Xhariep district office keeps a database of schools that fall under their jurisdiction. From this database, a purposeful sampling method was used to select 80 promoted school managers from the 23 listed schools in the Xhariep District. This method was used in order to prevent under or non-representation of parts of the population. A structured, Likert-scaled questionnaire with closed-ended questions was used to collect information from the respondents. The results of the study showed that the majority of the respondents urgently needed to undergo an induction programme. Sixty-seven per cent of the respondents felt that induction instilled a feeling of belonging. The study also revealed that promoted school managers are offered very little support.

 

Key words: Promoted school managers, induction, secondary schools, South Africa

 

*Address all correspondence to: Wendy N. Setlalentoa

School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

E–mail: wsetlale@cut.ac.za

 

T.T. Seipobi

Academic Support and Development

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

E–mail: tseipobi@cut.ac.za

 

 

 

 

A Review of Curriculum Packaging in Zimbabwe’s Education: Considering the inclusion of IKS in the Curriculum Content.

by

William Zivenge

Institute of Cultural Heritage Studies

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O. Box 1235, Masvingo

Zimbabwe, Africa.

zivengew@gzu.ac.zw

williamzivenge@yahoo.com

Abstract

 

The emergence of Western Education in Zimbabwe dislocated the locals from their knowledge base that had provided existential frameworks since times immemorial. The new pedagogical and antragogical support systems were designed following the dictates of the western education system. Adopting and adapting the western curriculum to suit the new African education environment was only cosmetic. Curriculum packaging was aimed at preparing an intellectual base that would support the newly established industrialized African life. The products of the new education system were expected to manage, supervise and drive an industrialized and urbanized life, where development would be guaranteed when only supported by a productive economy. The education curriculum was designed in such a way that the pedagogical environment and outcomes would support this intricate life. This was a paradigm shift from the indigenous perspective of education. The curriculum designers deliberately excluded some of the indigenous knowledge systems, guided by the misconception that IKS are not directly related to the new industrial economy. This saw the exclusion of the whole range and diverse base of IKS from the pedagogical scope. IKS was relegated to history, where it primarily functions as knowledge base for an ‘uncivilized’ ancient folk. The fusion of indigenous content into the curriculum was rather cosmetic and was never implemented meaningfully. The new education curriculum packages content that emphasise on documentation of ideas, authenticity, replication and empiricism. Since African Knowledge was not documented the curriculum designers left out IKS in curriculum content, guided by western imperatives for data validation in education. Lack of documentation automatically makes Indigenous Knowledge System unfit to be subject of study in education. Both the pedagogical content and methodologies excluded the African knowledge paradigm in the new education system and a completely western packaging was adopted. Zimbabwe like any other African country was not spared from this endeavour and a century of educating the nation failed to produce an intellectual resource compatible with African development. This paper therefore proposes a new curriculum package for Zimbabwe, where indigenous Knowledge Systems are part and parcel of the new curriculum framework.

 

 

 

 

Intellectual Property Rights and Sustainable Development in Africa: Whither Zimbabwe?

 

Fortune Sibanda, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo

Email: sibanda35@gmail.com

And

Richard S. Maposa, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo

Email: maposars@gmail.com

Abstract

The conflict concerning intellectual property rights has been on-going since the 1960s when African countries attained independence. The conflict is underpinned by the dialectical western and African perspectives in face of globalisation. African artistes like musicians, sculptors, dramatists, writers and academics are alienated from rewards that flow from their creative works. These artistes tend to focus on producing and performing their works at the expense of balanced financial returns. This scenario is a site of struggle. Unless the imbalance is re-interrogated and reversed, the African artistes remain at the periphery. Accordingly, the paper seeks to sensitise on the threats of piracy to both the literary and performing arts. By focusing on Zimbabwe, it is argued that there is need to fully harness the local talent and protect intellectual property rights to stem piracy, non payment or underpayment and unfair contractual practices. Whereas we bemoan that without proper benefits, local artistes are reduced to merely doing art-for-art’s sake, operating as underdogs and eventually ‘pass on’ as paupers, the study challenges African leadership to be pragmatic in protecting local talent from ‘predators’. The study posits that education must play an instrumental role for human consciousness and empowerment for sustainable development.  Whither Zimbabwe? The research recommends some urgent policies that could re-dress the anomalies and thereby promote legal and fair access to intellectual properties especially fostered through the power of education. In our conviction, this re-orientation ensures an African Renaissance enshrined in the African moral ethic informed by the philosophy of Ubuntu.

 

Key Words: Education, Intellectual Property Rights, Sustainable Development, Zimbabwe

 

 

 

 

“TRAIN UP A CHILD IN THE WAY HE SHOULD GO, AND WHEN HE IS OLD HE WILL NOT TURN FROM IT,” PROVERBS 22:6.

BRIDGING THE ROLE DIVIDE: THE HOME-SCHOOL LINK IN CAREER GUIDANCE

BY

*CLEMENCE RUBAYA (GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY)

Email: crubaya@gmail.com

&

NHAMO MASHAVIRA (GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY)

Email: mashaviranhamo@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to interrogate the role-gap between two social institutions, the home and the school, by exploring the extent of the two institutions’ cooperate (?) relationship in career guidance of children. Among other things, the paper investigates whether parents are doing enough to help their children have a fair chance in school and the world of work. In the words of Holford (2004:32), “the ultimate goal of parenting is to launch our children into life, as fully equipped as possible.” Thus, the interest of the paper is narrowed on investigating the effectiveness of parents’ nurturing and  training of children as part of people resources  through an investigation of children’s experiences in the home and at school in order to discover how they are  treated, ‘managed’ and developed as a future manpower   resource. Through observations and interviews  of parents, teachers and children, the paper seeks to unearth the impact of the familial and school environments as well as communication patterns in the delegation of roles and responsibilities in the home and school in influencing children’s academic achievement and future careers. According to Young (2002), the quality of interaction the child receives can have a long-lasting effect on children’s development. Feldman (2009:347) has also argued that “parents’ child-rearing practices are critical in shaping their children’s social [and academic] competence.” Thus, the paper will attempt to unveil the diverse parenting styles and their impact in realizing the human potential in children who are the pool from which a nation‘s future human resource needs are tapped. The study has, foremost, shown that children’s career potentialities are considerably differentiated by social class and school conditions where there is a huge early opportunity gap between those from affluent families and their poorer compatriots. The paper has also discovered a ‘victim-image’ of children from poorer backgrounds who experience clipped and curtailed human rights and privileges when compared to their richer compatriots. The research recommends that proper child nurturing and training strategies be adopted via well coordinated and institutionalized strategies permeating all agencies that have to do with child development.

KEY WORDS:

Career guidance

Child development

Functionalist perspective

Manpower resource

Management

Personalities

 

 

 

Topic: The impact of the Introduction of the Further Education and Training System at Motheo FET College in the Free State Province, South Africa.

Litheko Reggie <slitheko@cut.ac.za>

ABSTRACT

The aim of the paper was to explore the perceptions of Motheo FET staff on the implementation of the FET system. It is believed that these perceptions have far-reaching implications on the aspirations of the stake holders with regard to the implication and success of the FET system at colleges. The literature has revealed that legislation, namely, the FET Act 98 0f 1998, the SAQA Act of 1995 and the Skills Development Act of 1998,form an indispensable part of the FET sector and also provide all stake holders with a frame of reference and guidelines to manage the new FET system for colleges effectively and efficiently.

The paper also reveal that success in the FET sector will be achieved by closing the gap between “education and training” and also “theory and practice”. Removal of fragmentations through a co-ordinated, flexible and high-quality FET system will result in employability and employment opportunities for FET scholars. It has become clear that the above objective may be best achieved by strengthening co-operation between the Department of Education and Department of Labor, in which case a new system of learner-ship should be identified as a mechanism to enhance collaboration between the aforementioned departments.

A literature study, interviews, observation and site analysis were used as methods of data collection. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of data, namely transformation of the FET sector, ensuring equity in all aspects regarding FET matters and ensuring equality in all aspects within the FET sector. Important findings will be discussed and recommendations will be drawn from these findings.

 

Key words: FET-Further Education and Training; FET System; Staff and Stake holders.

 

THE AFRICAN UNIVERSITY AND THE AFRICAN INTELLECTUAL: RETHINKING THE LANGUAGE ISSUE

Dr. Jacob Mapara, Department of African Languages and Literature, Great Zimbabwe University; Email: jacob.mapara@gmail.com or jacomapara@yahoo.co.uk or jmapara@gzu.ac.zw

and

Munyaradzi Mushonga, Department of Historical Studies, National University of Lesotho; Email: papamunya@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The continued marginalization of national languages in Africa’s education systems remains as one of Africa’s unfinished businesses. This paper makes three propositions. First, that it is possible to raise African languages to the same level of sophistication as European languages. Second, that scholarly creativity and originality could be enhanced if African languages are privileged as languages of science and knowledge. Third, that none other than the African university and the African intellectual are in a better position to take this challenge head-on. African universities and intellectuals are therefore challenged to stop continuing being purveyors and outposts of Western culture and ideologies. The paper is therefore a may day for African governments and intellectuals to consider this issue seriously since it is not just a question of identity but also one of liberation. It makes this call on the realization that language carries culture and it is culture that carries and informs development. Therefore forAfrica to develop, it needs its languages and firm believers.

BIODATA

Jacob Mapara is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of African Languages and Literature, Great Zimbabwe University. His research interests are in onomastics, African languages, literature and indigenous knowledge systems.

Munyaradzi Mushonga is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Historical Studies at the National University of Lesotho. He has previously taught history at the University of Zimbabwe. His research is highly interdisciplinary, with publications cross-cutting several themes – nationalism, race, gender, sexuality, migration, heritage, culture, religion, African Studies, and African Higher Education.

 

IKS and life-long learning: The Case of the Shona Proverb

Dr. Jacob Mapara, Department of African Languages and Literature, Great Zimbabwe University; Email: jacob.mapara@gmail.com or jacomapara@yahoo.co.uk or jmapara@gzu.ac.zw

and

Dr. Shumirai Nyota, Department of Curriculum Studies, Great Zimbabwe University; Email: shumirai.nyota@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the nexus between indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) and life-long learning as reflected in Shona proverbial lore. The researchers examine the place of the Shona proverb as a didactic tool in various settings where contionous learning has been observed to make a difference, either negatively or positively depending on whether one would have reflected on it or not. The paper idenfies sevaral examples of such places. These include but are not limited to the workplace, religious gatherings and the home environment. What the researchers come up with in this study is that lifelong-learning is not a preserve of the western type of education but is something that has always been there. They argue that the use of IKS as reflected in the Shona proverb and other related forms have implications for today’s curriculum planners, especially those involved in adult and continuing education.

BIODATA

Jacob Mapara is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of African Languages and Literature, Great Zimbabwe University.

Shumirai Nyota is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Curriculum Studies at Great Zimbabwe University.

 

 

 

Chosen  Sub- Theme: Gender Issues in  Education

Title: Affirmative action by lowering university entry points for females: Great Zimbabwe University students’ views.

 

 

Rugare Mareva

And

Felix P. Mapako

 

Great Zimbabwe University

Faculty of Education

Department of Curriculum Studies

P O Box 1235

Masvingo

 

E-mail address: marevarugare@gmail.com

                            felixmapako@gmail.com

                           

Abstract

 

 

Some universities in Zimbabwe have sought to address student enrolment gender imbalances by lowering entry points for female applicants. This study aimed at soliciting for and comparing the views of male and female students on the issue, using Great Zimbabwe University as a case study. In-depth interviews were held with twenty-five female and twenty-five male first year Bachelor of Arts students who were randomly selected to participate in this qualitative inquiry. The study established that more female than male students saw this positive discrimination as a noble idea as it, inter alia, promotes diversity and empowers females in this patriarchal society. However, some female students were of the view that this form of affirmative action should be discontinued as it is demeaning and insulting because it seems to imply that females cannot achieve the same or higher level of academic performance at A- Level than males. More male than female students were against affirmative action, arguing that it promotes the enrolment of ‘unqualified’ students, thus lowering university academic standards. The male students also felt the policy short-changed and marginalized them and they suggested that there might be need for ‘reverse’ affirmative action in favour of males in the near future. The paper concludes that there are mixed views regarding the lowering of university entry points for females and recommends further national debate on this pertinent issue.

 

 

 IMPLICATIONS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES

Dr. D. E. Mkhize

Durban University of Technology

033-845 9029 (office)

083 560 7165

Dumisani Ezra Mkhize <mkhized@dut.ac.za>

Universities in South Africa have experienced a series of remarkable changes over the last twenty years as governmental sectors have sought to make the sector more effective and efficient, and more accountable for investment of public funds.  Rapid growth in student numbers and pressure to broaden participation amongst all learners are more challenging factors in the University institutions.  Learning outcomes can be used as an instrument to measure the quality and efficiency in the Higher Education institutions.  This will also enable universities to describe courses in an explicit way to demystify education to a wider audience.  This paper intends to examine how learning outcomes are used in the higher Education Institutions to evaluate the implications of curriculum design and the learning of students.

Watson (2002: 208) defines a learning outcome as “something that students can do now that they could not do previously… a change in people as a result of a learning experience”.  It has long been recognized that education and training are concerned with bringing about change in individuals, and the use of learning outcomes to describe these changes is now a new practice.  Carey and Gregory (2003: 26) suggest that as early as 1930s ago in the US, Ralph Tyler introduced an “objective-based” approach to education in schools.  It is thus possible that the most well known contribution to the development of outcomes-based curricula was the publication of Taxonomy of cognitive objectives by Benjamin Bloom in 1956.  Bloom’s taxonomy outlined a framework for classifying learning in cognitive terms that suggested different kinds of student way of thinking.  Bloom’s taxonomy has received a severe challenge in South Africa following a number of changes in the curricula in Universities and schools in general.  In the UK, recent educational reforms in the higher Education Institutions as a result of the Dearing Report (national Committee of Inquiry in Higher Education in 1997) have resulted in significant awareness, and increase in the use of Bloom’s Taxonomy across all Universities.  In this regard, Dearing’s recommendations have had a significant influence on the way in which University Institutions describe their programs of study and have led to significant changes in quality assurance procedures in the higher University Institutions.

Assurance Agency in 1997 was followed by a number of developments, including the founding of a Qualifications Framework for Higher Education Institutions, Program specification, institutional audit, as well as subject benchmarking.  As such, South Africa followed suit in terms of borrowing the ideas which were utilized and employed by the Western Universities.

It is real that there are dialogues around the use of learning outcomes, mainly centred on their proposed rewards and benefit to the student.  A clear challenge faced by University Institutions is an explicit indication of what students are expected to attain in relation to specific awards and their intended courses.  It has been argued that, as a tradition, Universities tended to focus more on content and process of learning rather than on its outcomes (UDACE, 1989).   As a result, Universities have tended to describe their provision in terms of courses and syllabuses they offer to students, hence they (Universities) would expect students to adapt and adjust themselves to an established curriculum and mode of delivery.  In the past decade, however, there has been a culture of change in most University Institutions and there is recognition that much has to be benefited by moving away from the concept of a content-based focus of curriculum to a more student based and centred approach (Robertson, 200  1).  In a paper published by Barr and Tagg in 1995 entitled “from teaching to learning: A New paradigm for Undergraduate Education” strongly advocated a necessity to move away from what has been known as Traditional “Instructional Paradigm” which tended to focus its attention on teaching and instruction to a “learning paradigm” which enables students to research, synthesize, analyze, discover and develop knowledge themselves.  Barr and Tagg (1995) support this idea by means of providing an argument related to a shift towards an environment in which students are empowered to take responsibility for what they learn.  Learning outcomes offer a means by which attention can be focused on the actual attainments of students.  Many scholars generally argue that if students are afforded an opportunity in their own learning, they will learn better and be more motivated about what they are learning.  This should also encourage them to be independent learners.

 

 

 

 

 

Teacher Preparation: Are teachers adequately prepared to teach an integrated Life Skills Curriculum to young children?

Dr Nontokozo Mashiya
Acting HOD & Programme Coordinator
Department of Early Childhood Education
Faculty of Education
University of Zululand
Private Bag X 1001
KwaDlangezwa
3886
Tel:035 902 6789
Email: jnmashiya@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

This paper presents the perceptions of third year Bachelor of Education students who are specialising in Early Childhood Education in one South African University. Perceptions about their experiences of teaching integrated Life skills to Foundation Phase learners during their teaching practicumwere investigated. This cohort was chosen because they are the first group to specialise in ECE in this university. The study is hoped to reveal gaps in their teaching of Life Skills in order to address them during their final year of study. This is a qualitative study located within an interpretive paradigm. Interviews were used to generate data. Ten third year students specialising in Early Childhood Education were purposively selected.  Data revealed that students’ knowledge about integration is very shallow some indicated that they were unable to integrate in their teaching; they only focused on topics that appeared in the curriculum document. The study recommends that there should be emphasise during lectures on how integration is done in the teaching of Life Skills, proper training on this aspect is a necessity.

Keywords: Life Skills, teaching, integration, Foundation Phase, perceptions, students

 

 

 

 

 Problem-Based Learning (PBL): Its relevance for the delivery of Professional Content Knowledge (PCK), Academic Content Knowledge (ACK) and School-Based Experience (SBE)

By:

Prof Jay MM Jadezweni

Faculty of Education

Walter Sisulu University

Private Bag X1

Mthatha 5117

SOUTH AFRICA

In South African Higher Education the current and most pressing challenge is to strike a balance between PCK, ACK and SBE. Most institutions have been grappling with how best to produce teachers that are professionally developed, with adequate ACK and suitable SBE. The paper will seek to explore PBL as an appropriate approach to produce such teachers. The exploration will be premised by a definition and description of PBL as a learning and teaching approach.

PBL is a learner-centred approach to the process of learning and teaching. It is an approach where problems are carefully designed, developed or selected such that they match the intended outcomes or purposes. In this regard, the paper will examine the relevance of PBL in the delivery of PCK, ACK and SBE. Specifically, the paper will determine whether the outcomes and or expected competences of the three areas can be effectively and efficiently realised almost simultaneously using one PBL case.

Keywords: Problem-based learning, professional content knowledge, academic content knowledge, school-based experience

Email: mmj20022002@yahoo.com Tel: 047 502 2555/6/7 Fax: 047 502 2554

 

 

Title of paper:

Reasons for the slow completion rate of masters and doctoral students at a South African University of Technology

Dr Masilonyana Motseke

Senior Lecturer,

Central University of Technology,

Welkom Campus

P O BOX 1881

Welkom

9460

Tel: 057 910 3637

Fax: 0867511885

 

Abstract

Academic research is a complex exercise which requires dedication and specialised knowledge in order to successfully complete.The study investigated the reasons why part-time students doing masters and doctoral degreesat aFree State University of Technology were taking too long to complete their studies. A questionnaire was developed and sent to these students. All participants wereteachers (either at schools or at the district offices of the Department of Basic Education). The ages of these students ranged between 37 and 61 years. The questionnaires were sent to 24 students, and16 responded (tenmasters and six doctoral students).The approach was mainly qualitative. The study found that the main reasons causing these students to take too long to complete their studies included the lack of basic research skills, work and family pressure, lack of access to internet, lack of computers skills,high stress levels, heavy workloads andpoor academic backgrounds. They were also found to lack adequate funds to pay for laptops, memory sticks and private internet access.The township situation in which they lived or worked, and the past policy of apartheid,also contributed negatively to their studies. It is recommended that the university should provide students with adequate training in basic research and computer literacy; the university should alsoimprove internet access for students,and provide students with laptops and memory sticks.

Keywords:Masters’ and Doctoral studies; disadvantaged students; South Africa.

TITLE: HIV/AIDS AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT:A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHIDRENLIVING WITH FAMILIES  OR   ORPHANAGES.

 

 

PRESENTATION TYPE: ORAL

 

THEME:  HIV and AIDS Management Prevention and Sexuality Education.

 

AUTHOR: TAPIWA MUDYAHOTO

Tapiwa Mudyahoto

<melusitap@yahoo.com>

INSTITUTION: GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

The AIDS scourge has brought a   plethora of challenges to both adults and children worldwide.  This paper seeks to interrogate the development of affected children living in orphanages vis-a-vis their counterparts living with their families in terms of gross and fine motor functions.  A longitudinal research study that involved repeated observation of children’s developmental milestones spanning over a period of eight months was used.  A qualitative descriptive survey design which employed developmental checklists was used.  The sample comprised of sixteen affected children living in orphanagesand another sixteen living with their families.  Data was gathered from Runyararo, Rujeko clinics, Masvingo General Hospital and Alpha Orphanage.  The study revealed that children’s motor skills are largely influenced by the immediate environment which may be the family or orphanage.  The study further indicated that the family is an agent for faster motor development than institutions.  The study recommends that children be placed in smaller numbers to allow maximum attention by caregivers.

KEY WORDS: Motor development, Milestones, Orphanage, Gross motor, Fine motor

 

 

 

 

CHALLENGES AND TRAINING NEEDS OF PROMOTED SCHOOL MANAGERS IN XHARIEP DISTRICT SECONDARY SCHOOLS- FREE STATE PROVINCE

 

T.T. Seipobi

Academic Support and Development

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

E–mail: tseipobi@cut.ac.za

 

Wendy N. Setlalentoa

School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

E–mail: wsetlale@cut.ac.za

 

Abstract

 

In the Xhariep District, which falls under the Free State Department of Education (FSDoE) in South Africa, promoted school managers are left to fend for themselves. This exposes the school managers to stressful working conditions, such as being unaware of the school policies and procedures. The overall aim and objective of this study was to explore and identify challenges faced by promoted school managers in Xhariep secondary schools and also identify the type of training needs they require.

 

This descriptive study is quantitative in nature because it collected mostly numeric data and employed mainly quantitative techniques when analysing the data. The population under investigation consisted of secondary school principals, deputy principals, and heads of departments Xhariep District. The FSDoE’s Xhariep district office keeps a database of schools that fall under their jurisdiction. From this database, a purposeful sampling method was used to select 80 promoted school managers from the 23 listed schools in the Xhariep District. This method was used in order to prevent under or non-representation of parts of the population. A structured, Likert-scaled questionnaire with closed-ended questions was used to collect information from the respondents. The results of the study showed that the majority of the respondents urgently needed to undergo an induction programme. Sixty-seven per cent of the respondents felt that induction instilled a feeling of belonging. The study also revealed that promoted school managers are offered very little support.

 

Key words: Promoted school managers, induction, secondary schools, South Africa

 

*Address all correspondence to: Wendy N. Setlalentoa

School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

E–mail: wsetlale@cut.ac.za

 

T.T. Seipobi

Academic Support and Development

Central University of Technology, Free State

Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

E–mail: tseipobi@cut.ac.za

 

 

 

Conference sub-theme(s): Gender in Education/ Teacher Education

Topic: The Interface between Gender and Discourse Analysis in Art and Design at Teacher Education Level.

Dairai Dziwa

Great Zimbabwe University

 

Abstract

This qualitative study used discourse analysis as a semiotic strategy to analyse the significance, relevance and influence of gender in symbolic interpretation. Whether the artist or viewer is man or woman, does it provide additional information that can certainly affect our understanding of works of art. The study in particular was aimed at discovering social, cultural, historical and biological implications related to the application of semiotic theory in deciphering content and symbolic meaning in visual texts. A total of 49 teacher education art students (24 females + 25 males) were selected for the study. Participants made individual interpretations to visual texts (paintings, drawings, installations, stone sculptures and public art structures- photographs). Interviews and observations were used to support and validate the interpretations written. Results indicated that females’ interpretations were impregnated with feminine reactions with themes of motherhood, sympathetic, care and love emerging common. Contrary and interestingly the males reflected masculine interpretations of authority, dominance, protectiveness and non-sympathetic attitudes on the same paintings. The reactions were diverse in meaning because they were a reflection of sex, gender stereo-typing and socio- cultural backgrounds departing from specific objective contextual meaning imbedded in visual texts.

Key words: Gender. Discourse Analysis, Semiotics, Visual

 

By: Dairai Darlington Dziwa*

Great Zimbabwe University

Faculty of education

Curriculum Studies Department

P.O.Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

email: dairaidziwa@yahoo.co.uk

 

 

 

 THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON CHARACTER BUILDING OF YOUNG CHILDREN

Mrs Makasi

Great Zimbabwe University

Abstract

This paper aims to show that Shona traditional culture through the daily activities children are immersed in and children’s stories is an indigenous way of character building. As methodology examples of the daily activities and children’s stories are analysed using insights from developmental psychology and indigenous ways of learning. The paper also argues that Shona traditional culture embedded in these aspects provides a rich environment or social context that helps to shape children’s character towards acceptable standards in that society. The paper also attempts to reinforce that daily activities and children’s story as indigenous knowledge systems are not confined to the traditional era, but that the values enshrined in them are relevant to the contemporary Shona culture. It is the values in the conduct displayed in daily activities and children’s stories that can help modern society to deal with issues relating to morality in children. This is so because indigenous African education places considerable emphasis on character training.

Key words:     Culture, Indigenous children’s stories and character training.

esthermakasi@yahoo.com

 

 

PARTICIPATION OF TEACHERS IN THE MARKING OF ‘O’ LEVEL HISTORY EXAMINATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR CLASSROOM PRACTICES

                                                            BY

SnodiaMagudu

Email: srmagudu@yahoo.com.au

Department of Curriculum Studies, Great Zimbabwe University

Abstract

The localisation of ‘O’ level examinations was one of the major educational reforms undertaken by the new government of Zimbabwe after independence. This move meant that local secondary school teachers would be involved in the administration, setting and marking of the examinations. This study investigated how the participation of teachers as examiners and assistant examiners in the marking of ‘O’ level History examinations has impacted on their classroom practices. Participants in the study were drawn from Masvingo district and consisted of fifty (50) ‘O’ level History examiners andassistant. Data for the study was gathered through self-administered questionnaires as well as focus discussions with selected participants. The majorfindings of the research suggest that some positive outcomes have been realised from the participation of teachers as examiners as it enables them to gain insights into the nature and demands of examination questions. However, most teachers now seem to restrict their teaching to spotting and coaching students for possible examination questions thus neglecting theteaching of broader historical knowledge and skills.The study recommends, among other things, that the training of examiners goes beyonddiscussion of marking schemes and standardization of marking to include other aspects that would foster the professional development of the examiners.

 

 

 

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

FACULTY OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Authors: Professor L Nkiwane, and Mary Dlodlo.

TITLE:  An Investigation into Problems Faced by the Rural Girl Child in Secondary Education in Bulilima District in Zimbabwe

Abstract

This study was conducted in Bulilima district of Zimbabwe in 2007, during the period when the country was going through its worst economic decline since independence. A descriptive study was conducted and problems faced by secondary school children especially girls in rural day schools were investigated. Data was collected, using guided interview questionnaires for secondary school girls and boys, and focus group discussions with the school communities. Data was analyzed using the Software Package for Social Science (SPSS). The major problems identified in the education of girls in secondary schools were among others teenage pregnancy, students walking long distances to schools, poverty and child abuse in the communities. Problems identified were associated with the home and school environment and financial support of rural school children. The study high lighted that girls in rural areas encounter more problems as compared to boys in secondary schools. Findings of the study could be applicable to many similar situations within the country. It was concluded that the study has implications to those interested in the development and education of female students during and after secondary education.

 

 

 

Sub-theme: Teacher Education Issues

Topic: Listening to the voices of experience: Exploring the various constraints /challenges faced by B.Ed Pre-service (Primary) teachers in implementing English as a second language (ESL) curriculum.

Mrs Catherine Ngwaru

Abstract

Much attention has been given to numerous research studies that points to various constraints faced by teachers and learners in bilingual contexts when a foreign language (particularly English) is used as a medium of instruction in schools. These studies of language pedagogy in Sub-Saharan African classroom in general, and Zimbabwean classroom in particular, have highlighted that a combination of uncritical implementation of the largely inherited curriculum and lack of far reaching reforms of the same has led to the perpetuation of low educational standards due to poor proficiency in the language of education. Following that trend, many stakeholders in education particularly teacher developers, classroom practitioners and learners themselves attribute this poor academic achievement to the demise or marginalization of indigenous languages which have been proved to be a pre-requisite towards a smooth transition from home to school thus leading to higher achievement in school . However, student teachers who (in the researchers view) are also significant players in curriculum implementation have not received much audience to voice their sentiments about English Langauge teaching.This paper therefore examines the perceptions of B Ed Pre-service (primary) teachers about the challenges they encounter in implementing English as a second Language (ESL) curriculum during teaching practice (TP) .The study seeks to highlight the persistent obstacles that militate against quality ESL instruction with the hope of finding a workable solution. The study further investigate how these challenge manifests in the four language skills (listening, speaking reading and writing) and how some of them can be alleviated. The paper argues that English language is a complex embedded discipline and a language that many non-native speakers of English are not fully conversant with. As a result, compelling second language learners of English to cope with such a complex language at the same time requiring them to learn and acquire it using that very same language is obviously a very difficult task for them. In the same vein, pre-service teachers who are also second users of English find themselves tasked with the responsibility of learning to teach it. This situation is regrettable and undoubtedly a very difficult pedagogical enterprise that  cannot be easily achieved without high linguitistic proficiency, adequate mastery of language content and the appropriate strategies for executing that content. The paper further argues that during TP the student teachers have degree of professional competency which, presumably, should enable them to effectively implement the ESL curriculum. Unfortunately, that measure of professional competency has on many occasions proved to be of little value given the mismatch between what pre-service teachers bring to the classroom  and the reality that obtains therein. Sadly, the student teachers  often realize that they are inadequately equipped to deal effectively with the ESL curriculum. The study adopted the qualitative research design since the research rendered itself more to this approach. Questionnaires, informal interviews, document analysis and student teachers’ personal accounts of TP experiences were used as data gathering instruments. All twenty-two(22) part III Bed pre-service (primary) teachers who did TP in 2011 and ten (10) randomly selected university lecturers who (among others ) supervised and assessed some of the English taught during this period formed the participants of the study. The results of the study showed that: both student teachers and learners low linguistic competence gravely affected the quality of ESL instruction. The results also showed that student teachers failure to integrate the language skills made their work very difficult thus resulting in their failure to effectively implement the curriculum.

 

 

 

 

Iron octa-carboxy phthalocyanine–nanotube conjugates for the detection of dicrotophos.

Authors: Mufandaedza Jonathan1, 2 and Takalani Magadzu1

1Chemistry Department, Limpopo University, Sovenga 0727, South Africa

2 Faculty of Science, Great Zimbabwe University, P. Bag 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe.

jmufandaedza@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with the catalytic behaviour of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with iron octa-carboxy phthalocyanine (FeOCPc) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) towards the detection of dicrotophos. The GCE modified with FeOCPc and multi-walled carbon nanotubes GCE-FeOCPc-MWCNT exhibited an electrocatalytic response towards dicrotophos reduction. A catalytic diffusion-controlled process, with high tafel slope (108mV/decade) suggesting a weak binding of dicrotophos with FeOCPc as a catalytic modifier. Using cyclic voltammetry (scan rate of ±1500 mV/s, versus Ag/AgCl) technique, the modified sensor was successfully applied for dicrotophos assay at pH 2.0 buffer solution with sodium monobasic and sodium dibasic sulphate as the supporting electrolyte. The modified electrode was able to sensitively detect dicrotophos levels of as low as 12 x 10-13 mol/L. The surface of the modified electrode was easily regenerated by simply by shaking the electrode in the pH 2 buffer solution (through cyclic voltammetry) in the potential window 0.0-1200 mV.

 

 

Sengai Elias Walter

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE VALUE AND PLACE OF HISTORY AT SECONDARY SCHOOL WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FIVE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN CHIREDZI WEST DISTRICT

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken so that it may contribute in a humble way to the general debate on the value and place of History in the secondary school curriculum. The study highlighted the views of teachers, pupils, Heads of Department, the Education Officer as well as parents on the justification of the teaching of History at secondary school. It is hoped the study will encourage further innovations in the teaching of History so as to justify its inclusion in the secondary school curriculum.

When a student chooses to do History at secondary school, he or she may be opting to be a historian with all the intellectual rigour. The purpose of the study of History has often been described as threefold: to understand the past, to learn about human behaviour, and to search for the truth. This research felt that the last purpose of those given above is its essence. Like all sciences, History, to be worthy of itself and beyond itself, must concentrate on one thing, the search for the truth. Its real value as a social activity lies in the training it, provides, and the standard which it sets, in this singularly human concern. Reason distinguishes man from the rest of creation, and the study of History, regarded as an autonomous enterprise, contributes to the improvement of man’s reasoning. It does so by seeking the truth within the confines of its particular province, which happens to be the rational reconstruction of the past. In this larger purpose, it has no monopoly, for this it shares with every form of intellectual investigation, but it happens to have certain advantages in that it attracts a wide variety of intelligences and does its work without too much demand on technical specialisation in the learner and can rest its capacity to train on its capacity to entertain.

There are those who more recently have questioned that History can best be justified on the basis of its intellectual integrity at secondary school. It is important to discriminate between the student who takes the subject along with others to gain qualifications and the undergraduate who has chosen to read the subject at university. While it should be recognized that History should not simply be a body of transmitted information, and carefully rehearsed interpretations of that information neither should students be expected to behave as academic researchers. There is a middle road which leads to the heart of secondary school teaching and that is to teach the students to think historically.

This is not to imply that the value of the subject lies only in the ability to handle evidence or to enter into historiographical debate but rather suggests that the effective history teacher is the one who poses historical questions which allow progression from the factual event to the causes, motives, and results within a historical context. It is where students are trained in historical question framing that the subject is imparting its best skills. The findings from this study will therefore be priceless in arming the students and teachers of History alike as they confront the prophets of doom who have already dismissed their subjects as being wholly concerned with a bygone past and therefore irrelevant to the needs of the contemporary curriculum. The investigation into the value of History as a subject at secondary school will certainly leave history students and teachers better equipped in their quest to firmly establish History as a core subject at secondary school.

 

 ABSTRACT(Nyoni)

 

Access and quality in education in resettlement schools: The case study of Zvivingwi Secondary school in Gutu district.

vincent jenjekwa <vjenjekwa@gmail.com>

 

 

In Zimbabwe, the discourse on access and quality in education has been a raging one since the colonial days of bottlenecks and outright discrimination against black Zimbabweans in education. The doors to education were declared open to all at independence in 1980 with the new Zimbabwe government’s enunciated policy of education for all. It is an uncontested fact that strides were made soon after independence to address issues of quality and access in education. However, with the prosecution of the fast track land reform programme the dream for access and quality in education became a nightmare. Whilst trust schools, boarding schools, urban and some rural day schools have a comparative advantage in terms of resources like infrastructure and qualified and relatively motivated human resource, emerging resettlement schools bear the brunt of hastened and impromptu establishment. It is the contention of this paper that resettlement schools like Zvivingwi, established in the last decade, are a facade of the schools envisioned by many Zimbabweans at independence. These schools reel from abject shortage of everything except pupils. It would be recommended that government should show creativity in mobilising resources to intervene, failing which, most of the resettlement schools like Zvivingwi, risk closure as public confidence in them wanes. The researcher made use of a questionnaire and interviewed critical stakeholders at the school like headmaster, teachers, parents, pupils and education officers. School records and other critical documents were also made use of.

 

 

 

                                                          ABSTRACT(Nyoni)

 

Zimbabwe’s 5 education systems in one: Implications to quality, access, equity and equality.

 

or

 

Education provision in Zimbabwe: The return of the ghost of stratification and its implications to quality, equity and access in education.

vincent jenjekwa <vjenjekwa@gmail.com>

 

At independence in 1980, the new majority government of Zimbabwe embarked on an ambitious but necessary programme to expand education provision as well as remove bottlenecks and other discriminatory practices which the colonial government had pursued. Issues of access, quality, equality and equity took centre stage as the new government sought to fulfil promises made during the protracted liberation struggle. This paper will argue that though issues of educational access, equality, equity and quality have been elusive since independence, economic challenges of the last decade brought stratification in the education system in Zimbabwe to levels reminiscent of education provision in colonial days. The majority of urban and rural day schools, resettlement or so called satellite schools where the majority of Zimbabwean schoolchildren attend school, grapple with severe shortages of human and material resources and in some cases, abnormal teaching loads and this has serious implications on access, equity, equality and quality in education. The paper will conclude that unless government intervenes by subsidising the education for rural and urban dwellers, the stratification in the provision of education will have telling consequences on national development in Zimbabwe. The research was carried out with a representative sample of schools from Masvingo district through analysis of documents, questionnaire and interviews of critical stake holders in the schools concerned.

 

 

 

 

Constantino Dombo

Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique

Constantino.dombo@uem.mz

Abstract

Electric and galvanomagnetics efects in the  monocristal of  InAs.

 

Physics is an experimental science. For this reason, in the teaching-learning process, conducting laboratory experiments is an extremely important activity. However, the realization of laboratory experiments for  basic and specific subjects such us solid state physics and semiconductors physics, face  difficulties due to the high cost of equipments.

In this article is shown  the possibility of using inexpensive equipments as the Hall monocrystalline probe for creating laboratory experiments. These laboratories include the measurement and determination of important physical quantities.

PACS: 72.10.Di, 72.20.Dp, 72.20.Pa, 72.20.

 

Abstract- SASE

An investigation of operational risk management systems used in manufacturing Small and Medium Enterprises in Masvingo urban (2009-2012).

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have been labelled as engines for economic growth the world over. In Zimbabwe however SME development has been hampered by a number of identified causes. Amongst them Mudavanhu et al (2011), Chidoko et al(2011) and Zindiye (2011), in their researches, identified some of the challenges as lack of skills in human resources, poor managerial skills, lack of capital, poor accounting systems, unavailability of credit, import competition, high cost of raw materials. The SMEs have thus failed to satisfy the engine for growth function as was expected by most economists. The current study aimed at finding out if SMEs are doing something about mitigating against the causes of failure and suggest ways that they can adopt to contribute to sustainable development. The descriptive survey design was used to describe the risk management systems in place. The study found out that internal controls such as security guards, generators in place of electric systems and in rare cases insurance are the risk management systems that SMEs rely on mostly. The study recommended entrepreneurial skills education as a pre-requisite for good and improved performance in SMEs. Owners/managers should communicate business objectives to all the employees through training and development, so that they own the objectives and ensure that there is continuity in the operations of the business resulting in minimal or zero losses and sustainable development.

KEY WORDS: Entrepreneurship skills, SMEs, operational risk management, training and development, sustainable development.

 

Promoting Local Knowledge for Teaching Physics

ValeriKuleshov& Adriano Sacate

Eduardo Mondlane University

Physics is a fundamental science, dealing with the most general properties of the world around us. The knowledge of its basics isimportant for the process of social and economic development of any country to be successful. In Mozambique the citizens acquire this knowledge primarily in High School through the teacher of Physics. Physics, being a complex science, demands that the teacher masters a lot of methodsof teaching and learning. However, due to the fact that the teaching and learning takes place in an African country, not all of these methods give the same results. Bearing in mind the inclination of African people for entertainment, show, and fun,the teacher must put in front suchunorthodox for teaching and learning Physics methods as games (indoors and outdoors) and simulations, role play and drama, creation and performance of hands-on experiments with the use of local materials, etc. Applying these methods, the teacher, at the same time, mustn’t forget to consider as often as possible an African element (local knowledge) whatsoever. So the training of a teacher (and lecturer) of Physics in Africa and for Africa can be considered satisfactoryonly if and when this teacher is capable of mastering the above mentionedand similar methods of teaching and learning with obligatory inclusion of local knowledge.

A group of lecturers and post-graduate students, belonging to the “Physics Education” sectionof the Department of Physics of the Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), currently carries out a research dedicated to establish a correlation between scientific knowledge and local knowledge and thusto promote some techniques for its introduction into the course of Didactics of Physics, which is the main topic of the specialty “Physics Education”, making part of both undergraduate and postgraduate curricula.Hence, using appropriate didactic material, the undergraduate and postgraduate students will have an opportunity to handle theoretically and practically the general and particular questions ofDidactics of Physicswith the African element included, so learning to teach different chapters of Physics, using local knowledge.The group hopes that the results of this researchwill help the future teachers of Physics to make their classes more adaptable for African audience.

 

DETERMINATION OF THE ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY FROM A SIMPLE PENDULUM GRAVITA: BESSEL METHOD
aAlexandre Fernando Dambe
Eduardo Mondlane University, Department of physics, Maputo, Mozambique
(alexandre.dambe @uem.mz)
bAdriano Rafael Sacato
Eduardo Mondlane University, Department of physics, Maputo, Mozambique
(Adrianosacate@uem.mz)
cMarina Y. Kotckareva
Eduardo Mondlane University, Department of physics, Maputo, Mozambique
(Mkotmz@uem.mz)

ABSTRACT
It should be noted that the teachers of physics, for the most part, are a series of difficulties in carrying out their teaching tasks. This situation is no different when it comes to determining the acceleration of gravity in high school, where problems and issues seem to challenge the teaching of physics over time. One difficulty is the lack of laboratories in schools, as well as the high cost of instruments, but does not prevent that teachers resort to the local auxiliary resources so they can illustrate their lessons. To do so, was done the construction of a Simple Gravity Pendulum (SGP), which occurred in a way that was possible interactivity with the student’s own instrument, thus allowing it to observe the behavior of a body in different positions in a Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) and the related concepts that describe the phenomenon. In order to produce a simple experiment, using low-cost material, this experience will also provide a more meaningful learning leading the student to realize the limitations of their prior knowledge. For this experiment we applied the method of Bessel, where their advantage lies in the fact that, provide accurate results of the acceleration of gravity, if they are compared with the theoretically known. The values of gravity acceleration ranging from 9.79 to 9.87 m / s2 end the average value of the acceleration of gravity obtained was 9.84 m/s2.

 

 

 

 

NAME: Ms. H.R. MHLONGO (hmhlongo@pan.uzulu.ac.za)

Dr M.E. Khuzwayo (mkhuzwa@pan.uzulu.ac.za)

Dr M.A.N. DUMA (mduma@pan.uzulu.ac.za)

UNIVERSITY OF ZULULAND (Private Bag X 1001, kwaDlangezwa, 3886)

FACULTY OF EDUCATION

 Sub-theme: Curriculum Development and implementation

TITLE

EXPLORING VIEWS OF EDUCATORS ON THE OUTCOMES OF THE READING CAMPAIGN

 

ABSTRACT

 

The purpose of the present study was to understand the efficacy of the reading campaign in improving learners’ competences in reading. The study was conducted in the northern Kwa-Zulu Natal province, and the researcher has chosen Empangeni district as the field of study. The study was conducted in senior phase schools under Mthunzini circuit in Empangeni district with a sample size of sixty educators. Educators answered a questionnaire with both closed and open- ended questions to solicit their views on the implementation of the ELITS’ reading campaign, their awareness of the campaign and availability and accessibility of the quality reading collection supplied by ELITS to schools. The tentative findings reveal that majority of the educators are not aware of the ELITS reading campaign. The distribution of relevant reading material is not made readily available to majority of the schools thereby impacting negatively on learners’ competences in reading.

 

Empirical study of digital poverty: A case of Central University of Technology, Free Sate.

Abstract(Watson Manduna)   

The emergent of information and communication technologies (ICT) has greatly impacted the socio-economical and political activities of individuals, organisations and nations. It is the survival of the fittest where individuals, organisations and nations that manage to harness it, have managed to reduce operational cost, satisfy their stakeholders, increase profits and in particular have a competitive edge. Those that fail to exploit this unfolding phenomenon fail to overcome challenges from their competitors and meet the demands of their customers, suppliers and other stakeholders.  Such organisations are faced with high production cost, dwindling profits, loss of market share and competitive advantage. In education, students who manage to harness this technology have amplified their active, evaluative, integrative, creative and collaborative learning capabilities, leaving those with no or limited access, availability and accessibility behind. Consequently, this has broadened the socio-economical and political gap between the “have” and “have not”, which culminated in digital poverty. This research evaluates the availability and use of ICT by 50 first and 20 third year students from disadvantaged and privileged families studying computer education at Central University of Technology (CUT), Free Sate. Through literature review, a detailed analysis is done on the users of ICTs, poverty, digital divide and factors which lead one group to be unable to adopt, access, and use ICT.  A pilot study comprising 5 first year students was carried out to evaluate the extent of ICTs access, availability, accessibility and universal- access   and it confirmed the necessity of using connectivity, social status and level of education as the determinants of ICT usage. Obtained information is then used to give an empirical definition of digital poverty. Although the research is not yet complete, the following is to be done; (a) to probe deeper into responses of the interviewees and make sure that they feel comfortable with answering questions, face-to-face interviews are conducted to a stratified random sample of 5 first and 5 third year students; (b) to create a framework for assessing the degree of ICT usage based on connectivity, social status and level of education, the researcher distributed questionnaires to a stratified random sample of 50 first and 20 third year students; and (c) the above framework is to be used to categorize the population into groups of extremely digitally poor, digitally poor, connected, and digitally wealthy. The first section deals with a conceptual discussion of digital poverty, its types and possible levels. The second section concerns the validation of the classification, using data from CUT.  Results, discussion and conclusion will be discussed after the main study.

 

 

The influence of celebrities on the behavior of high school students in Zimbabwean Secondary Schools in Masvingo Province

 

Chinangure Farai (fchinangure@gmail.com)

——————————

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of celebrities on the behavior of high school students in Zimbabwean Secondary Schools. The study would be carried out against the backdrop of increased exposure and interaction between celebrities and the adolescents through the advent of internet, social networking and globalization. Celebrities have the potential to influence behavior of adolescents who may see them as role models.The qualitative research method would be employed in this study. Interviews, questionnaires and focus group discussions will be used to collect data. A total of 160 students will be sampled from Masvingo urban secondary schools.Data collected through focus group discussions would be analyzed through comparisons and discussion of the trends and patterns that emerge in respondents’ thoughts and views. The other data from the structured interviews and questionnaires would be analyzed through descriptive statistics. It is hoped that the findings of the study may inform interventions that can promote self-regulation among adolescents to minimize adverse effects of celebrities’ influence on students if there are any. Furthermore,understanding the influence of the celebrities on the behavior of students may enable the parents to adjust their parenting styles to be more involved in their children’s lives and give them the necessary attention needed for them to be critical to any forms of influence that are associated with people they want to identify with.

 

 

Author:  Dr Zoliswa Twani

Affiliation: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University – Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Contact details: zo.twani@nmmu.ac.za; +27 761304758

Sub-theme: Education and Development

Abstract

This article seeks to introduce the dialogical lifelong learning model while critiquing traditional rationales for teaching.  The problem with traditional approaches is that they have largely focused almost exclusively on the idea of aesthetic arts education, defining education as having a formal or expressive artistic essence (in the case of the arts)  While formal training and traditional approaches are still relevant, they exclude informal methods of acquisition of knowledge and skills. In contrast current viewpoints are holistic and make it clear that ideas are not always strictly emerging and operating in a formal environment and through formal education in an institution, but extra-curricula relationships pertaining to arts education’s function in society and its value. Using the narrative enquiry method, stories and examples were collected and analysed to describe and explain how the recommended model provides relevant response to acquisition of knowledge and skills, for the expressed needs of the learners. Findings suggest that the dialogical lifelong learning model puts emphasis on learning with, from and alongside the learners through action and reflection. It concludes that the socio – cultural aspects of arts education are considered and the approach is suitable for anyone in any context, formally or informally.

Keywords: dialogical lifelong learning; arts education; formal education; extra-curricula; narrative enquiry method and action and reflection.

 

 

 

Transformational Leadership by School Management Teams in Selected Schools of Mthatha Education District.

By

Dumani Petros Tyebileyo & Mabovula Nonceba Nolundi

Walter Sisulu University, Nelson Mandela Campus, Mthatha

Sub Theme: Leadership and management.

This article focuses on the leadership role of school management teams (SMT) in selected schools in Mthatha Education District. The Department of Education’s strategic policies after 1994 democratic elections in South Africa changed their focus from being racially divided to a democratically all inclusive education system. Such changes were brought about by the introduction of many education laws such as the South African Schools Act No 84 of 1996; The National Education Policy Act No.27 of 1996; Personnel Administration Measures (PAM); The National Norms and Standards for Schools Funding and many more. The challenges that face the management of schools during this new democratic era seem to be mounting. Four schools selected purposefully from Mthatha Schools were used for a project that was aimed at marshalling support for the leadership provision in schools. The views of SMTs in these four schools were probed and solicited by using questionnaires. Four themes were used by the researcher to collect the relevant data. During the data analysis, what emerged form the data generated through the four themes seemed to be in disjuncture to the propositions of the education legislation and literature. In an attempt to overcome these challenges of leadership provision in school, transformational leadership was chosen by the researcher as the most appropriate fundamental approach that can be used to change the scenario.

 

Keywords: Leadership, Transformation Theory, School Management Teams, School Principal, Deputy Principal, Head of division, South African Schools Act, teachers, School Governing Body, Transactional Theory,

 

 

Issues surrounding women academics’  research productivity at a South African university: an analysis of  dominant discourses.

By Prof Connie B Zulu

ConnieZulu@nwu.ac.za

Abstract

It is well documented that universities privilege research and publication for the career advancement and academic recognition of academics.  Yet, generally, women academics face obstacles in their personal and work lives which inhibit their research productivity. This is due, in part, to various issues or discourses surrounding women’s research productivity.  Among these are issues related to the doctorate and the professoriate, heavy teaching loads, lack of time, family responsibilities, area of specialization, the advent of managerialism and difficulty in entering supportive networks. These and other factors have been revealed through a review of the literature on women academics’ research productivity coupled with a small-scale empirical study, the aim of which was to identify factors that inhibit women’s research productivity at one university campus in South Africa. This study was conducted on a small purposefully selected sample of early career women academics. The empirical findings represent the views of this small sample of academic women doctoral degree holders, and lead to the conclusion that  women academics’ research productivity is often hampered by a number of factors, some of which are beyond their control. It is recommended that, where possible universities should remove structural impediments to research productivity and also develop programmes which specifically target women academics for research growth and development at all levels of their careers.

 

TITLE:  TOWARDS ACHIEVING QUALITY DISTANCE EDUCATION, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES.  THE  ZIMBABWEAN EXPERIENCES.

By: G.N. Shava (Lecturer : Lecturer National  University of  Science and Technology

Department of Technical Teacher Education. P.O. BOX AC 939

BULAWAYO; ZIMBABWE

Email – gnshava@gmail.com.

Abstract

In the knowledge based global economy of coming decades, quality distance education will be a cornerstone of broad based economic growth and social empowerment.  Without strategies to improve the quality of education, Zimbabwe may not be able to take advantage of the technological developments. High quality education is the most important investment for making progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDG) for 2015. It is against this background that the current study set out to establish the major challenges faced by the Zimbabwe Open University in its effort to provide quality distance educational programmes to its learners.  The qualitative study used employees of the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) based at its ten regional centers and the National Center members of staff.  Cases were chosen from the Zimbabwe Open University staff, former students, and students-representative committee members.  A total of ninety-six respondents were selected for the study. The study established that the lack of resources and quality management at regional centers are the major factors affecting the provision of quality distance education.  The declining quality of education was also attributed to the lack of commitment among employees.  The study recommended that there is need to provide for well coordinated capacity-building programmes for ZOU employees to enhance their management skills.

 

Challenges in Adult Education in rural areas of Limpopo Province in South Africa

Rakoma MM

University of South Africa

Rakommm@unisa.ac.za

Abstract

Limpopo has been identified as a province characterised by high levels of illiteracy that cause unemployment and poverty. However, many adults do not participate in Adult Basic Education and Training (ABET) programmes, while others drop out in high numbers. This study sought information on the situational, institutional, dispositional and informational factors affecting participation in ABET. The research design was a phenomenology. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 30 educators and 60 learners. The findings revealed that situational obstacles include poverty and cultural factors related to gender. Institutional issues were related to the location of the centres, funding and irrelevant programme content. Dispositional factors included lack of confidence of participants aggravated by negative perceptions on ABET by communities. Finally, informational factors comprised poor marketing of the programmes. The study posits that ABET programmes need to be reviewed and be tailored to the needs of rural communities in Limpopo. Concerted efforts should be made by government; non-governmental organisations and the private sector to facilitate provision of relevant ABET programmes.

 

Theme: Inclusive education

Inclusive Education in  Peri-Urban School District: Perceptions of Parents and Teachers

Jabulani Mpofu

Department of Disability Studies and Special Needs Education, Zimbabwe Open University Harare. Zimbabwe                                                                                                                                         E–mail: jabumpofu@cooltoad.com & jabumpofuh@gmail.com

 

Almon Shumba  School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities                                                                       Central University of Technology, Free State, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa                                                                                                                                                   E–mails: ashumba@cut.ac.za & almonshumba@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study investigated perceptions of the impact of inclusive education practices by teachers (n=43, males = 17, females = 26) and parents (n=18, males,n= 28, females =46 ) in a peri-urban school district in Zimbabwe. Participant teachers taught in primary schools (n=60) whereas the parents had children who attended the same schools. Data on teachers understanding of inclusion, parental involvement in inclusion programmes, and pupil’s academic achievement in inclusive education were collected using  questionnaires, interviews and observation checklist. The data were analyzed descriptively and thematically.  Teachers understood inclusive education to mean having children with disabilities and those with disabilities learning at the same school. Support systems for inclusive education such as psychologists, social workers, parents, learning partners and significant others were under resourced and underutilised. Despite the fact that inclusive education has been institutionalized in the Zimbabwe schools for at least three decades, challenges of implementation prevail.

Key terms :Inclusive education, perceptions, disabilities,

 

 

 

The opinions of students and academics on the role of e-learning in higher education

MrSiphamandla L. Ncube: School practicum Unit

MsSbongile P. Zulu : Department of Educational Psychology & Special Education

&MrBongani T. Gamede :Department of Social Sciences Education

MrMswazi G. Tshabalala :Centre for Cooperative Education & Experiential Learning

University of Zululand,Private Bag X 1001,

kwaDlangezwa,3886

szulu@pan.uzulu.ac.za

lncube@pan.uzulu.ac.za

bgamede@pan.uzulu.ac.za

mtshabal@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

 Sub- theme:  TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION

Abstract

E-learning is becoming increasingly prominent in Institutions of higher education.  It is however, noted that the efforts of institutions of higher education to incorporate information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the educational programmes are frequently questioned due to an apparent tension between ICT and Education. So far, most research on the use of        e-learning in higher education has focused on ways for the teacher to incorporate the new technology into their teaching. Nonetheless, there is still a gap.  Even knowledge about e-learning from the student’s perspectiveseems to be very sparse. Hence, there are reports of students overwhelmingly preferring to take classes using e-learning rather than a traditional course. The major concern in this study is that both academics and students are still struggling to access electronic learning resources, yet there is a demand, particularly within the Faculty of Education (FE).  The question that arises is “are these lecturers and students well equipped to utilize this facility or do they see a need to incorporate it?Such questions warrant an investigation of “lecturers’ and students’ opinions on the role of e-learning in higher education” at the University of Zululand. The study sample consisted of 45 BEd level 3 and 4 students and 15 lecturers from the FE. A semi-structured interview was used to collect data.  Tentative results of the study reveal that both lecturers and students at UZ hold positive opinions about e-learning in education. However, it was discovered that these people need training and exposure in order to utilize these facilities. In addition, relevant resources also need to be accessible.

Key words: institution of higher learning; academics and students; opinions; e-learning; education

 

 

 

Identificação e Descrição das Dificuldades na Aprendizagem de Cinética Química: o caso da 12ª Classe do E.S.G – 2

Tatiana Kuleshova e Ivan Laimoni

UEM, Faculdade de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica

RESUMO

O presente trabalho tem como principal objectivo identificar as principais dificuldades na aprendizagem de Cinética Química por parte dos alunos que frequentam a 12ª Classe do Sistema Nacional de Educação em todas as escolas do país. Para o efeito recorreu-se a uma série de entrevistas na base dos questionários, dirigidos aos professores de Química e alunos da 12ª Classe com o propósito de recolher informação, necessária para compilação do trabalho. A análise dos conteúdos das entrevistas realizadas com os professores e alunos demonstra que as dificuldades enfrentadas pelos professores, dizem respeito? a falta de laboratórios escolares em especial enfoque aos de Química; ao estado avançado de degradação dos poucos laboratórios existentes na minoria das escolas de referência como são os casos das escolas secundárias Josina Machel e Francisco Manhyanga; o crónico problema das turmas superlotadas, cerca de 60 à 70 alunos em salas projectadas para acomodar 25 alunos; ainda alegam que os programas de Química para o Ensino Secundário Geral são bastante volumosos e a carga horária é bastante reduzida; apontam também a fraca preparação metodológica de alguns professores nesse trabalho; entre outros. Enquanto que, alguns alunos queixam e justificam-se das dificuldades devido as difíceis condições estruturais das escolas e a pouca ou mesmo falta de paciência, vocação e vontade de ensinar por parte de alguns professores; outros alunos alegam que as aulas de Química nas nossas escolas não são contextualizadas, isto é, não se ensina uma Química direccionada a vida quotidiana, etc.

Palavras-chave:dificuldades, aprendizagem, Cinética Química, alunos.

 

 

 

 

Identification and Description of Difficulties in Learning Chemical Kinetics: the case ofGrade 12 ESG – 2
Ivan and Tatiana Kuleshova Laimoni
Eduardo MondlaneUniversity, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, MAPUTO, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

This work has as main objective to identify the main difficulties in the learning ofChemical Kinetics by students attending the 12th Class of the National System of Education in all schools in the country. For this purpose we used a series of interviewson the basis of questionnaires for teachers and students of Chemistry Grade 12 in order to collect information needed to build the work. A content analysis of interviews withteachers and students shows that the difficulties faced by teachers, concern: the lack ofschool laboratories in particular focus on Chemistry, the advanced state of degradationof the few laboratories in the minority of schools existing reference as in the case of secondary schools and Josina Machel Manhyanga Francisco; the chronic problem ofovercrowded classes, about 60 to 70 students in rooms designed to accommodate 25 students; still claim that the programs in Chemistry for General Secondary Educationare rather bulky and workload is greatly reduced, also point to poor methodologicalpreparation of some teachers in this work, among others. While some studentscomplain and are justified because of the difficulties the difficult structural conditions of schools and little or lack of patience, and willingness to teach vocation by someteachers, others argue that students of chemistry classes in our schools do not are in context, ie, does not teach a chemical targeted daily life, etc..
Keywords: difficulties, learning, Chemical Kinetics, students.

Novo! Clique nas palavras acima para editar e ver traduções alternativas. Ignorar

 

 

Methodological Alternatives in technical education in the subject: Acid – Base.

Tatiana Kuleshova andGonçalves, EzequielGuindaJúnior

Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of de Science, Department of Chemistry , MAPUTO, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

O papel de Jogos didacticos no desenvolvimento do sistema de tecnologias educacionais  do ensino

Tatian Kuleshova e Damicenca Lavinia

UEM,Faculdade de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica

RESUMO

No tratamento teórico sobre o jogo didático,  feito na base da revisão na literatura científica que dignifica a investigação, pois apresenta uma relação de trabalhos científicos sobre jogos didáticos específicos para a área de Educação química, dificilmente encontrada em artigos científicos que tratam desta temática . Na bibliografia analizada discutem-se os diferentes níveis de interação entre jogo e o jogador, elegendo quatro níveis que permitem a análise qualitativa de jogos didáticos, com a intenção de facilitar a identificação das suas propostas  para o ensino de Química. São destacadas as seguintes actividades : cooperação; competição; fabricação e construção coletiva; histórias em quadrinhos; e expressão corporal. Baseado nesses quatro níveis de interação, apresentam-se propostas de jogos didáticos especificamente para o ensino de Química.

Para o primeiro nível de interação, podem ser mencionados os jogos na base dos estudos de Equilíbrio Químico, Lei de Lavoisier, Ligação Metálica e Reagente Limitante. Os jogos com os titulos de  Ludo Químico, Pif-Paf Iônico, Trunfo Químico e Dominó Químico são exemplos do segundo nívelde interação. Os jogos para esses níveis de interação são fáceis de serem aplicados na Educação Básica, portanto de utilidade aos professores. Como pode se ver, nao existe grande diferenca entre estes niveis.O terceiro nível de interação, manifesta-se com a efetiva manipulação pelo estudante com o material: alguns jogos como o de elaboração de jornais ou revistas entre os outros. Para tratar do IV e último nível de interação,podem servir, por exemplo, as histórias em quadrinhos e os jogos teatrais, entre outros.

 

Como objectivo geral do trabalho serviu: estudar as possibilidades de uso dos jogos didacticos  durante o leccionação do tema Reaccoes redox e obtenção e propriedades de  oxigenio.

Para atinguit objectivo geral, foram formulados seguintes  objectivos especificos:

Analizar o conteudo de programa com finalidade de enquadramento de J.D. na aula de Quimica;

Elaborar planos de lição na base de realização de J.D.

Realizar J.G. na sala de aula

Avaliar o impacto educacional de J.D.

O trabalho foi feito na Escola Secundaria Josina Machel na 8 classe. Como amostra serviu todos os 40 alunos da turma. Durante a realização do estudo, os alunos participaram activamente na aulas, gostaram de realizar jogo e demonstraram interece bastante elevado para estudar Quimica.

 

Palavras-chave: jogo didactico, ensino, Quimica

The role of educational games in system development of educational technology education

 

TatianKuleshovaDamicenca and Lavinia

EMU, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, MAPUTO, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

In the theoretical treatment of the teaching game, made on the basis of the review in the scientific literature that dignifies the investigation, because it presents a list of scientific papers on educational games specific to the area of Chemical Education, hardly found in scientific papers dealing with this issue. Analyzed in the literature discusses the different levels of interaction between game and player, electing four levels that allow for qualitative analysis of educational games, with the intention of facilitating the identification of its proposals for the teaching of chemistry. The author identifies the following activities: cooperation, competition, manufacturing and construction conference, comic strips, and body language. Based on these four levels of interaction, we present proposals for didactic games specifically for the teaching of chemistry.

For the first level of interaction, may be mentioned the games on the basis of studies of Chemical Equilibrium, Law of Lavoisier, Metal Binding and Limiting Reagent. The games with the titles of Ludo Chemical, Ionic Pif-Paf, Trump Chemical and Chemical Dominoes are examples of the second nívelde interaction. The games for these levels of interaction are easy to apply in basic education, so useful to teachers. As you can see, there is no great difference between these levels. The third level of interaction, manifested by the effective manipulation by the student with the material: some games such as the development of newspapers or magazines among others. To address the fourth and last level of interaction, can serve, for example, comics and theater games, among others.

As a general objective of the work provided: to study the possibilities of using educational games in the teaching of the subject and obtaining redox reactions and properties of oxygen.

To atinguit general objective, the following specific objectives were formulated:

Analyze the contents of the program with the purpose of framing JD in Chemistry class;

Develop lesson plans based on the performance of JD

Make J.G. in the classroom

Evaluate the educational impact of J.D.

The work was done at JosinaMachel Secondary School in eighth grade. Served as a sample all 40 students in the class. During the study, students participated actively in class, liked to make the game and showed very high interece to study Chemistry.

Keywords: educational game, educational, Chemical

This paper presents a research theme: Methodological Alternatives in technical education in the subject: Acid – Base. The overall objective of this work is: To study themethodological alternatives that can be used in technical education duringteaching theme “Acid – base.”
In terms of structure, the work is organized into five (5) chapters and contains five (5)attachments. To achieve the objective of this work were made to bibliographic research, preparation of posters that were used in subsequent experiments in educationalCommercial Institute of Maputo and performing chemistry experiments in the classroomwith the use of local materials.
Throughout the paper the methodological orientation to teach the subject Acid -Base
For pedagogical experiments have been used successfully teaching two classesapproached the previous quarter. One of the classes was used as the experimentalclass (where they were used teaching materials- posters and carried out chemicalexperiments) and the other as the control group (where no signs were used and notcarried out chemical experiments). After the teaching experiment, it was found that theexperimental group the percentage of the pedagogical use was higher than inthecontrol group where there was a lower percentage.

Keywords: local material, learning, chemical experiments, students.

 

 Student Teachers’ Conception and Perception of a Conducive  Learning Environment: A Case of Great Zimbabwe University Students on Teaching Practice

By

Tsitsi Nyoni

tsinyoni@gmail.com

Lecturer in the Department of Teacher Development at The Great Zimbabwe University

And

Tafara Mufanechiya

tafaramufanechiya76@gmail.com

Lecturer in the Department of Teacher Development at The Great Zimbabwe University

Abstract

In an effort to help student teachers improve the classroom learning environment in order to make it conducive, this research sought to establish the student teachers’ perception and conception of a conducive learning environment. It also aimed at unraveling their rationale for displaying charts, mounting mobiles, setting up of learning centers and displaying children’s work. The questionnaire, interview and observation were the main modes of data gathering. The findings point to the fact that student teachers are aware of the need to create a conducive learning environment but are somehow incapacitated. In most cases they lack the resources and at times are overwhelmed by the numbers that constitute their classes. Another challenge that was observed is that the student teachers are not well equipped with the skills and knowledge  required for such a task and do not see any link of this with their day today teaching. For them whatever displays and settings they put up are actually for assessment purposes. The researchers therefore strongly recommend that the Great Zimbabwe University Department of Teacher Development introduce and take seriously courses in Educational and Media Technology in order to fully equip the student teachers with the much needed skills. Student teachers also need support in the provision of resources through schools linking with the Curriculum Development Unit among other recommendations made.

Key Words: conducive  learning environment, learning centers, mobiles, charts.

 

 

 

Research Topic: Leadership for sustainable development: The role of higher education in producing a generation of new leaders

 

Abstract

Stakeholders’ expectations are the benchmark against which leadership development curriculum is arrived at. This study sought to determine stakeholders’ expectations on the type of organisational leaders to be produced by higher education for sustainable development. A survey of three provinces was employed to gather data through interviews from a convenient sample of 60 organisational leaders. Findings revealed that organisational leaders’ perception of a new generation of leaders for sustainable development comprise those who are sources of wisdom and competence, have transformational and technological influence, know how to learn and have capacity to manage new challenges as they come. They also hold the views that linkages are key to leadership in the new era and expect the new type of leaders to promote collaborative productivity, develop teamworking skills, establish strong partnerships and networks and instill the spirit of innovation and creativity. Leaders for sustainable development must work as change agents and display a forward looking mentality in self managing institutions that have an empowering culture. The study recommended that educational products, processes and outcomes in leadership preparation programmes in higher education must meet changing circumstances and address customer preferences as was the case in this study.

Key words: Organisational leader, sustainable development, leadership for development and new generation of leaders.

 

Early childhood development (ECD) teachers’ conceptions and implementation of the child-centred approach to teaching Science

 

Rose M. Mugweni

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O. Box 1235 Masvingo, Zimbabwe

Cell: +263 773249806

Email: ro.mugweni@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated ECD teachers’ conceptions of the child-centred approach and strategies they adopt to implement it when teaching environmental science in infant classes.  A descriptive survey was conducted to investigate the research problem. Information from the teachers was sourced via a questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents and lesson observations. Stratified random sampling was used to come up with a sample of 30 ECD teachers in five primary schools within a 25 kilometre radius of Masvingo City.  The study found out that the child-centred approach to teaching science in ECD classes was not being effectively implemented. A number of constraints which rendered implementation of the child-centred approach to teaching science in ECD classes ineffective were unravelled. All the teachers indicated that large classes, lack of sufficient resources, teachers’ insufficient knowledge of the approach and lack of conducive learning environments in ECD classes militated against effective implementation of a child-centred approach to teaching science. The study recommended that there is need for regular staff development workshops. ECD teachers should be provided with enough teaching and learning resources. There is need for continuous monitoring of the child-centred approach to ensure its effective implementation to teaching science in ECD classes. A system should be developed and operationalised where samples of media improvised by some of the ECD teachers are forwarded to Audio Visual Services for mass production so that all schools in the country benefit from the creation of innovative teachers. Lastly, it was recommended that the teacher-pupil ratio should be reduced from 1 teacher to 40 pupils to manageable classes of say 1 teacher to 30 pupils for ECD classes.

 

 

 

Locating Indigenous Traditional and Local Leadership In The Local Governance of Rural Primary Schools: A Case Study of One School Cluster In Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

By

Wonderful Dzimiri

Midlands State University

Department of Educational Foundations, Management and Curriculum Studies

ABSTRACT

Establishment of the school development committee (SDC) phenomenon in Zimbabwe’s government-aided schools came as a milestone reform in the country’s education landscape, mandating the participation of local communities/parents in local school governance.  Of interest, becomes the need to interrogate how the rural local (councilors) and traditional (chiefs, headmen, krallhead) leadership is situated in the activities of local governance of rural primary schools. In this study, I argue that the rural local and traditional leadership bring in a dimension of indigenous organization practices and knowledge to complement modern organization practices, and any inherent contradictions between such traditional and formal management practices. The study is a qualitative multiple case study of one school cluster (five schools) in the Shurugwi education district. Participants are purposively selected to include school heads, senior teachers, village heads/kraalheads, the local headman, and parents serving on the SDC. Data will be collected through interviews, observation and document analysis of past SDC minutes. Analysis of data, adapted to constant comparative analysis, entails identifying emerging themes and categories and their patterning constituents. Preliminary findings indicate elements of indigenous traditional knowledge and practices brought in to intermesh with modern management practices in the reality of local rural school governance.

 

 

 

Title:   EFFECT OF PRESERVATION METHODS IN REDUCING PARASITE LOAD IN AFRICAN CATFISH,Clarias gariepinus

(i)         J. Mukaro

B-Tech Programme, Masvingo Polytech.  Box 800 Masvingo

joe.mukaro@yahoo.co.uk.

(ii)   T.Chirikure

B-Tech Programme, Masvingo Polytech Box 800 Masvingo

ctinofirei@yahoo.co.uk

(iii) Munyoro E , University of Zimbabwe Box MP 167 Harare

The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of preservation methods in reducing parasite load in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The preservation methods used are freezing (at different temperatures and days of storage), hot smoking, cold smoking and sun drying (with or without initial brining in 10{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} salt solution). The study mainly focused on trematodes, nematodes and cestodes because they cause human fishery product borne parasitic diseases and they can form cysts within the flesh and hence survive preservation methods. Fish were caught live from Lake Chivero and the sex and weight of the fish was determined. Parasites were first identified in the fresh fish before preservation procedures were applied. The parasites that were identified in six males were Diplostomum sp. (prevalence (P) = 33{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}), Intensity (I) = 1-2, Mean Intensity (MI) = 1.5), Macrogyrodactylus clarii (P = 17{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}, I =1, MI = 1) and Clinostomum sp. (P =17{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}, I = 1, MI = 1). Diplostomum sp. and Clinostomum sp. were found in the muscle while Macrogyrodactylus clarii was found on the gills. Third stage larvae of the nematode, Contraceucum sp. (P = 67{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}, I = 1, MI = 1) was also recovered from the muscle of one female C. gariepinus. Diplostomum sp (P = 33{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}, I = 1, MI = 1) was also recovered from one of the female cat fish. Effects of preservation methods were also determined and parasite viability was assessed after preservation. Freezing the cat fish for 7 days at -200C was effective because the nematodes Contraceucum sp. and the trematodes Diplostomum sp. that were identified were not viable. The catfish were also frozen at -20oC and samples were taken after 1, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and observed for parasites. Viable trematode metacercariae (Clinostomum sp) parasites were found after 1 and 24 hours of storage, but no viable parasites were recovered from fish that were stored for 24 to 120 hours for longer periods. The Contraceucum worms and the trematode Diplostomum sp metacercariae that were observed after 48 hours to 120 hours were all dead. Hot smoking at 800C after brining in 10{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} brine solution was effective because all the trematode metacercariae that were observed in 3 different catfishes were not viable. Cold smoking at 300C after brining in 10{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} brine solution was done and this method was not effective in killing the parasites. All the trematode metacercariae and the Contraceucum parasites that were observed in four different catfishes were viable. The catfishes were sun dried for four days after brining them in 10{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} brine solution. This method was effective because all the trematode metacercariae that were identified were not viable. The fish were also sun dried without the addition of salt and this method was not lethal because out of the seven parasites that were identified six were viable and only one was dead. There were significant differences between preservation methods that effectively reduced the parasite load and those that did not (at 5{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} level of significance; Mann-Whitney two-sample test). Nematodes and trematodes which cause human infections were observed but Cestodes were not identified. Fish from Lake Chivero should be adequately preserved to kill these pathogenic parasites. Brining is an important step in fish preservation and freezing must be done at the correct temperature and period for it to be effective against parasites. The information generated by this study may be of benefit to fishermen, the fish-consuming public and public health authorities.

 

Title:   ABSTRACT CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED BOTTLED WATER BRANDS FROM CHOSEN HARARE RETAIL OUTLETS

(i)         J. Mukaro

B-Tech Programme, Masvingo Polytech.  Box 800 Masvingo

joe.mukaro@yahoo.co.uk.

(ii)   T.Chirikure

B-Tech Programme, Masvingo Polytech Box 800 Masvingo

ctinofirei@yahoo.co.uk

(iii) P.Gombiro  , University of Zimbabwe Box MP 167 Harare

The project was on assessment of the quality of bottled drinking water and to determine if the concentrations of selected metals were within the WHO guidelines and Zimbabwe Food and Foods Standards. Of major interest were the concentrations of Sodium, Potassium, Lead, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Cadmium, Manganese, Calcium, Copper, Chromium and Nickel.

Eight brands of bottled water samples of sizes three per brand were randomly taken from retail outlets. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used to determine the metal concentrations in the different brands. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests carried out showed different metal concentrations in Calcium, Potassium, Chromium, Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel and Sodium. ANOVA tests showed that the concentrations of Cadmium were not statistically different. Concentrations of Zinc, Copper and Iron were below detection levels in all the eight bottled water brands. T- Tests were performed to determine whether the metal concentrations were within both WHO Guidelines and Zimbabwe Foods and Food standards. All brands of bottled water had their Zinc levels below WHO Guidelines and Zimbabwe Food and Foods standards. Of all the brands, Cadmium levels in Bon Marche and Glendale Spring were found to be higher than the required levels in both WHO guidelines and Zimbabwe Food and Food standards. Copper concentrations in all the brands were well below both WHO guidelines and Zimbabwe Foods and Food standards. Levels of Lead concentration were found to be higher in both the WHO guidelines and Zimbabwe Food and Foods Standards for Tinga Mira, Aqua Crystals, Crystal Pure and Nestle Pure Life brands. There is need to monitor bottle water companies to ensure total compliance to the prescribed WHO Guidelines and Zimbabwe Food and Foods Standards.

 

 

 

Academic Development and Support

Central University of Technology

Private bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa

 

ABSTRACT

Name               :                       Mr TT Seipobi

E-mail address            :           tseipobi@cut.ac.za

CHALLENGES FACED BY PROMOTED SCHOOL MANAGERS IN XHARIEP DISTRICT SECONDARY SCHOOLS  – FREE STATE PROVINCE – RSA

 

Promoted school managers in this paper refer to heads of departments, deputy principals and principals.  The common practice in South Africa and in the Free State province in particular, is that these officials are promoted on the basis of their teaching experience and not on managerial or leadership experience.  This situation creates serious problems for them as they are thrown in the deep end and have to learn to swim on their own. Through trial and error some of them manage to succeed but others fell through.  In trying to establish themselves as managers as well as leaders they are sometimes confronted by resistance and anger from the subordinates, a situation which demoralises them and create feelings of isolation and alienation. This has been observed in Xhariep secondary schools where the researcher worked closely with school managers.

 

Given this background, the study was undertaken to explore the challenges experienced by promoted school managers upon assumption of duty. A quantitative approach using a descriptive survey research design was used. The instrument used to collect data was a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 78 school managers from secondary schools in the Xhariep district which is one of the five districts of the Free State province of South Africa.

 

The results showed among others, a lack of support for promoted school managers, as well as a lack of an integrated policy on induction. On the basis of these findings it was recommended that   there should be a greater focus on the quality of induction and professional support offered to promoted educational managers as well as a policy on the induction of school officials.

Kew words: Promoted school managers, secondary schools, school management, challenges, induction, and professional support.

 

 

B  Title: The impact of pollution on the Riffle fauna of the Umwindisi and Mkuvisi Rivers. Harare, Zimbabwe.

Authors:  (i)    E  Rurinda

Great Zimbabwe State University, Department of Curriculum Studies  Box 1235 Masvingo

eliasrurinda@cooltoad.com

(ii)        J. P. Mukaro

B-Tech Programme, Masvingo Polytech.  Box 800 Masvingo

joe.mukaro@yahoo.co.uk.

(iii)   T.Chirikure

B-Tech Programme, Masvingo Polytech Box 800 Masvingo

ctinofirei@yahoo.co.uk.

ABSTRACT

The impact of pollution on Umwindisi and Mukuvisi rivers was determined using Riffle fauna as biological indicators to monitor water quality.  The abundance and diversity of the riffle fauna in the unpolluted Umwindisi river was compared with that of the polluted Mukuvisi from October 2001 to March 2002.  The sampling sites on the two rivers were strategically located.  Temperature, pH. Conductivity, dissolved oxygen, ammonia concentration and biological oxygen demand were determined.  The abundance of collected riffle fauna was done by microscopy and classified.  Data was analysed using MINITAB – and the Shannon Weiner diversity index.  Riffle fauna abundance and diversity was high in Umwindisi than in Mukuvisi indicating high pollution impact  in the later river.

 

THE INCORPORATION OF ENVIROMENTAL EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE NIGERIAN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION

Ovbiebo Matthew Osaigbovo

University of South Africa

Department of Teacher Education

E-mail: attitude_altitude@yahoo.com

+27 834 863 869

Ovbiebo David

University of South Africa

Department of Missiology

E-mail: davdav247@yahoo.com

+27 834 364 712

ABSTRACT

The study explores the incorporation of environmental education (EE) for sustainability in the Nigeria colleges of education. The thrust is held in this study because of the view that the incorporation of EE promotes sustainable development. Cross-curricular teaching is the preferred model for the incorporation of EE in Nigeria colleges of education because it brings all teacher educators to contribute to the teaching of environmental education themes just as sustainable development requires all players to incorporate its principles in core operation of institutions. Education is seen as an instrument that could be used to address the environmental problems that affect the ability of the ecosystem to regulate climate, to provide resources and to support natural and human life in the broader environment. The methodology of research is both quantitative and qualitative. It emerged from the findings of the study that the ecological foundation and the conceptual awareness subgoals are part of EE teaching while the investigation and evaluation as well as the environmental action, training and application subgoals are not part of EE teaching in the Nigeria colleges of education. The findings of the study reveal that teacher educators in the Nigeria colleges of education have a variety of understanding and perception about the incorporation of EE in the Nigeria colleges of education. The findings also show that the barriers that affect the incorporation of EE in the Nigeria colleges of education are institutional, dispositional and situational.

Key concepts: Environmental education, curriculum, sustainable development, teacher education

 

 

ATTENTION,

SOUTHERN AFRICAN SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY, MASVINGO, ZIMBABWE, 4-6 OCTOBER 2012

ENHANCING MATHEMATICS SELF-EFFICACY OF TWICE-EXCEPTIONAL PUPILS THROUGH RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY

BY

OLADELE ADETOUN OLUBANKE

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOR THE LEARNING DISABLED

FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (SPECIAL), OYO NIGERIA

AND

DADA OLUSEYI AKINTUNDE

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FOR THE GIFTED AND TALENTED

FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (SPECIAL), OYO NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study focused on enhancing Mathematics self-efficacy, a critical factor influencing achievement of students particularly the twice-exceptional students who have evidence of giftedness but cannot optimize their potential particularly because of their learning difficulties in Mathematics. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) was experimented on 68 twice exceptional pupils in primary schools. These pupils were purposively selected through multi-stage screening and were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The REBT was applied on the participants in a pre-test, post-test, quasi experimental design. The data in the study was analyzed using ANCOVA and multiple classification analysis (MCA). The findings revealed that there is significant effect of the treatment (REBT) on the self-efficacy of the participants. The interaction effect of REBT and level of intelligence was also significant. A major recommendation is that teachers should be trained on the use of REBT on twice exceptional children to improve their Mathematics self-efficacy.

 

 

 

Gender Equity in Education: An Analysis of Perceptions of Female Students, Parents and Teachers towards the Maternity Leave Policy for High School Girls in Zimbabwe

 

Josiah Chaonwa Sithole  josiahsithole@yahoo.com

Lilian Manwa                  lilianmanwa@gmail.com

Lokadhia Manwa            locadiamanwa@gmail.com

Great Zimbabwe University Lecturers (Department of Teacher Development)

Abstract

The study examined the perceptions of female students, parents and teachers towards the maternity leave policy for high school girls in Masvingo urban in Zimbabwe. A qualitative paradigm and the descriptive survey method were adopted. The qualitative paradigm was selected because the issue under study yields soft data. A descriptive survey was suitable for a relatively large sample. The paradigm  lends itself to the use of in-depth interviews and open-ended questionnaires which were the two instruments used to collect data from forty-two (42) purposively sampled respondents from a population of thirty-six (36) teachers and one hundred and twenty students (120) from  three high schools. Collected data were presented in narrative form and qualitatively analysed. The main findings revealed that most parents, students and teachers were against the policy whilst a few were in favour although parents and teachers wanted it to be amended and reduced to a mere disciplinary document which is known to  administrators only. It is recommended that Ministry authorities should consult stakeholders before introducing policies which are sensitive in nature.

 

 

 

THE CHALLENGES OF CONDUCTING UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH IN GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES THROUGH OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING

Manyanhaire ItaiOffat

 Lecturer, Geography and Environmental Studies, the Zimbabwe Open University

offatmanya@yahoo.comoffatmanyanhaire@gmail.com

Abstract: Assessment in Education: SASE 2012

The paper discusses some of the challenges encountered by undergraduate students studying for the Bachelor of ScienceHonours Degree in Geography and Environmental Studies with the Zimbabwe Open University.The papers draw information from the analysis of submitted documents, examiners reports and discussions with graduates of the programme. Students encounter technological challenges that include lack of facilities in the regions and the inability to adapt to the fast changes of the information and technology industry. The students also have challenges with distancebetween them and the supervisor and centres of information. Despite the reproduction of tutorial letters as guidelines for research projects they continue to submit substandard reports that result in them scoring lowly. The reports lack depth and focus in the majority of cases and coupled with the lack of frequent conduct with the supervisors this usually puts students in a dilemma and they take long to finish their research projects. A more focused approach in the conduct of research work in geography has great potential to improve the standard of work and the quality of graduates churned out through open and distance learning.

Key words: challenges      geography distance       open learning the Zimbabwe Open University

 

 

 

 

TITLE: The tail that wags the dog! The ambivalent role of public examinations in ensuring quality and relevance in the Zimbabwean education system.

PRESENTATION TYPE: Oral PowerPoint

SUB-THEME: Assessment in Education

INSTITUTION: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Curriculum and Arts Education

AUTHORS: * Manasa Munashe Madondo, Godfrey Museka

Abstract

The importance attached to public examinations in African educational systems is immeasurable. Among the many functions of public examinations is that they form the basis of certification which in turn is the main criterion used for selection and placement into various levels of higher education, training or jobs. Thus for the education system as a whole, examinations are a way of measuring the learners’ attainment of the curriculum objectives and hence the overall effectiveness of the teaching – learning process. In spite of the well known importance of the public examinations, it is contended that in many instances examinations have become an end in themselves thereby detracting on the educational significance of the curriculum process itself. This paper argues that, in the Zimbabwean context, with respect to some established school subjects generally, and to socially relevant curriculum innovations such as HIV/AIDS, Life Skills and Health education, disaster risk management education and livelihoods education specifically, public examinations vitiate the quest for quality and relevant curriculum provision. On the basis of interview responses from practising teachers and educationists, vignette accounts by teachers and students/ ex-students and analysis of documents, it is posited that public examinations need to take on board alternative and authentic forms of assessment such as continuous assessment and profiling which can better assess social skills and attitudes over and above the academic prowess of learners. Such changes to the scope and content of public examinations would make them contribute better to quality education, curriculum relevance and be of service to education instead of the education process pandering to ‘insignificant’ needs of examinations.

KEY WORDS: Alternative assessment, certification, quality and relevance  

 

 

 

 

TITLE: The Place of Private Tuition in the Provision of Quality Education in Zimbabwe: A Shadow Becoming More Real than the Form.

PRESENTATION TYPE: Oral PowerPoint

SUB-THEME: Curriculum and development and Education

INSTITUTION: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Curriculum and Arts Education

AUTHORS: * Manasa Munashe Madondo and Honest Tirivavengi

Abstract

This paper reports on the findings of a research on private tuition practices in and around three secondary schools of Gokwe South District of the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. The study solicited questionnaire responses from accessible samples of fifteen teachers, forty-five secondary pupils and thirty-five parents involved in this mode of curriculum provision. Supplementary tutoring on school premises utilising school facilities and private tutoring outside school in individual arrangements were the two commonly practiced modes of private tuition. Participation in private tuition was the result of; the deterioration of teaching –learning conditions associated with the economic meltdown in the 2000 to 2010 period, the need to cover syllabi, the quest for individualised instruction, and specialised coaching in public examination techniques. The study revealed that private tuition contributes positively to quality of education with respect to; improved quality of teaching, remedial teaching and adequate coverage of syllabi. Private tuition emerged as a viable substitute or complement to an ailing but heavily examination oriented formal school system. However, it also emerged that private tuition had its own limitations chief among them being lack of teaching-learning resources. A major shortcoming was that it promotes an inequitable access to education since learners from poor backgrounds can not raise money for private tuition. The study recommends that a legal framework regulating fees charged the use of school facilities and supervision of the teachers involved in this practice be put in place.

KEY WORDS: Private tuition, quality education, access and specialised coaching

 

 

 

 

TitlePromoting Sea-boat Ethics: The Role of Public Examinations in Zimbabwe.

Presentation Type: Oral

Sub-theme: Assessment in Education

Institution: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Curriculum and Arts Education.

Author: Godfrey Museka

Abstract

In Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the world, students are primarily assessed on the basis of their performance in the public examinations they undertake at various levels. Philosophically, public examinations serve to promote a ‘fairer’ selection, based on meritocracy, for entry into higher education and into various forms of employment. This paper, however argues that examination-centred assessment is not only biased and segregatory but also narrow as it promotes urban elitism, mental rigour and aptitude at the expense of other key attributes necessary for school leavers to survive in the wider society. Evidence gathered through interviews and questionnaires show that as a form of assessment public examinations are inadequate as they do not address all the educational domains particularly the affective domain. This encompasses the inculcation of attitudes such as curiosity, inventiveness, persistence as well as dimensions in teamwork skills namely; adaptability, coordination, decision making, interpersonal relations, leadership and communication. Since public examinations focus on specific abilities, they exclude other relevant life-skills. In this regard, this study recommends a holistic approach to assessment in which public examinations together with other forms of assessment, for example, continuous assessment and or Records of Achievement (RoAs) are combined in order to produce students that are all- rounders and can be absorbed by industry and fit into society.

Key words: continuous assessment, records of achievement (RoAs), teamwork skills and affective domain

 

 

 

SOUTHERN AFRICA SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, SEPTEMBER, 2011

 

Great Zimbabwe, 4 – 6 ND OCT 2012

 

 

 

Title of Paper: Can Teachers be trained  through Open and Distance Learning: Challenges faced by the  Zimbabwe Open University

Cuthbert  Majoni, Zimbabwe Open University, Mashonaland Central Region P. Bag 984, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 263+71+ 7161/7484/7107   Cell 077 2 678 966, cmajoni@gmail.com and

Abstract

This paper will highlight the challenges experienced by the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) in training teachers wholly through Open and Distance Learning (ODL). The Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the only open and distance state university training teachers wholly at a distance. There are ten regional centres geographically spread in the country.    Since 2007, the programme been offered in the ten regions of ZOU.   So far two intakes have completed the training programme. This is  the first time in Zimbabwe for  students to be trained through ODL .The main question is   what are the experiences of these  students in training and what  challenges  ZOU is  facing ,how  is it  coping  with these  challenges what do stakeholders say about the quality of  graduates?

 

 

 

SOUTHERN AFRICA SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, SEPTEMBER, 2011

 

Great Zimbabwe, 4 – 6 ND OCT 2012

THEME   Access  Quality and Access in  Education  for Sustainable Development in Southern Africa

Sub-Theme :   Leadership and Management

Title of Paper: Leadership Challenges Faced by   Academic Leaders  in  Open and Distance Learning Institutions in Zimbabwe. A Case of the Zimbabwe Open University

 

 

Cuthbert  Majoni, Zimbabwe Open University, Mashonaland Central Region P. Bag 984, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 263+71+ 7161/7484/7107   Cell 077 2 678 966, cmajoni@gmail.com

 

Abstract

This paper will seek to find out the challenges faced by academic leaders in a decentralized set up universities in Zimbabwe. Most departments rely on part-time lecturers who work for other institutions and owe allegiance to other organizations. What leadership challenges are faced by academic departments as they execute their duties and how is this impacting on service delivery in the institution. It is hoped  this paper will recommend leadership approaches that will assist in improving departmental and institutional management.

.

 The opinions of students and academics on the role of e-learning in higher education

MrSiphamandla L. Ncube: School practicum Unit

MsSbongile P. Zulu : Department of Educational Psychology & Special Education

&MrBongani T. Gamede :Department of Social Sciences Education

MrMswazi G. Tshabalala :Centre for Cooperative Education & Experiential Learning

University of Zululand,Private Bag X 1001,

kwaDlangezwa,3886

szulu@pan.uzulu.ac.za

lncube@pan.uzulu.ac.za

bgamede@pan.uzulu.ac.za

mtshabal@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

PAPER PRESENTED AT THE 39TH SASE ANNUAL CONFERENCE HELD AT GREAT ZIMBABWE UNIVERSITY ON 4-6 OCTOBER 2012

 

Conference theme:  Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

Sub- theme:  TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION

Abstract

E-learning is becoming increasingly prominent in Institutions of higher education.  It is however, noted that the efforts of institutions of higher education to incorporate information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the educational programmes are frequently questioned due to an apparent tension between ICT and Education. So far, most research on the use of        e-learning in higher education has focused on ways for the teacher to incorporate the new technology into their teaching. Nonetheless, there is still a gap.  Even knowledge about e-learning from the student’s perspectiveseems to be very sparse. Hence, there are reports of students overwhelmingly preferring to take classes using e-learning rather than a traditional course. The major concern in this study is that both academics and students are still struggling to access electronic learning resources, yet there is a demand, particularly within the Faculty of Education (FE).  The question that arises is “are these lecturers and students well equipped to utilize this facility or do they see a need to incorporate it?Such questions warrant an investigation of “lecturers’ and students’ opinions on the role of e-learning in higher education” at the University of Zululand. The study sample consisted of 45 BEd level 3 and 4 students and 15 lecturers from the FE. A semi-structured interview was used to collect data.  Tentative results of the study reveal that both lecturers and students at UZ hold positive opinions about e-learning in education. However, it was discovered that these people need training and exposure in order to utilize these facilities. In addition, relevant resources also need to be accessible.

Key words: institution of higher learning; academics and students; opinions; e-learning; education

 

 

 

THE CHALLENGES OF CONDUCTING UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH IN GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES THROUGH OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING

Manyanhaire ItaiOffat

 Lecturer, Geography and Environmental Studies, the Zimbabwe Open University

offatmanya@yahoo.comoffatmanyanhaire@gmail.com

Abstract: Assessment in Education: SASE 2012

The paper discusses some of the challenges encountered by undergraduate students studying for the Bachelor of ScienceHonours Degree in Geography and Environmental Studies with the Zimbabwe Open University.The papers draw information from the analysis of submitted documents, examiners reports and discussions with graduates of the programme. Students encounter technological challenges that include lack of facilities in the regions and the inability to adapt to the fast changes of the information and technology industry. The students also have challenges with distancebetween them and the supervisor and centres of information. Despite the reproduction of tutorial letters as guidelines for research projects they continue to submit substandard reports that result in them scoring lowly. The reports lack depth and focus in the majority of cases and coupled with the lack of frequent conduct with the supervisors this usually puts students in a dilemma and they take long to finish their research projects. A more focused approach in the conduct of research work in geography has great potential to improve the standard of work and the quality of graduates churned out through open and distance learning.

Key words: challenges      geography distance       open learning the Zimbabwe Open University

 

 

 

 

TITLE: The tail that wags the dog! The ambivalent role of public examinations in ensuring quality and relevance in the Zimbabwean education system.

PRESENTATION TYPE: Oral PowerPoint

SUB-THEME: Assessment in Education

INSTITUTION: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Curriculum and Arts Education

AUTHORS: * Manasa Munashe Madondo, Godfrey Museka

Abstract

The importance attached to public examinations in African educational systems is immeasurable. Among the many functions of public examinations is that they form the basis of certification which in turn is the main criterion used for selection and placement into various levels of higher education, training or jobs. Thus for the education system as a whole, examinations are a way of measuring the learners’ attainment of the curriculum objectives and hence the overall effectiveness of the teaching – learning process. In spite of the well known importance of the public examinations, it is contended that in many instances examinations have become an end in themselves thereby detracting on the educational significance of the curriculum process itself. This paper argues that, in the Zimbabwean context, with respect to some established school subjects generally, and to socially relevant curriculum innovations such as HIV/AIDS, Life Skills and Health education, disaster risk management education and livelihoods education specifically, public examinations vitiate the quest for quality and relevant curriculum provision. On the basis of interview responses from practising teachers and educationists, vignette accounts by teachers and students/ ex-students and analysis of documents, it is posited that public examinations need to take on board alternative and authentic forms of assessment such as continuous assessment and profiling which can better assess social skills and attitudes over and above the academic prowess of learners. Such changes to the scope and content of public examinations would make them contribute better to quality education, curriculum relevance and be of service to education instead of the education process pandering to ‘insignificant’ needs of examinations.

KEY WORDS: Alternative assessment, certification, quality and relevance  

 

 

TITLE: The Place of Private Tuition in the Provision of Quality Education in Zimbabwe: A Shadow Becoming More Real than the Form.

PRESENTATION TYPE: Oral PowerPoint

SUB-THEME: Curriculum and development and Education

INSTITUTION: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Curriculum and Arts Education

AUTHORS: * Manasa Munashe Madondo and Honest Tirivavengi

Abstract

This paper reports on the findings of a research on private tuition practices in and around three secondary schools of Gokwe South District of the Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. The study solicited questionnaire responses from accessible samples of fifteen teachers, forty-five secondary pupils and thirty-five parents involved in this mode of curriculum provision. Supplementary tutoring on school premises utilising school facilities and private tutoring outside school in individual arrangements were the two commonly practiced modes of private tuition. Participation in private tuition was the result of; the deterioration of teaching –learning conditions associated with the economic meltdown in the 2000 to 2010 period, the need to cover syllabi, the quest for individualised instruction, and specialised coaching in public examination techniques. The study revealed that private tuition contributes positively to quality of education with respect to; improved quality of teaching, remedial teaching and adequate coverage of syllabi. Private tuition emerged as a viable substitute or complement to an ailing but heavily examination oriented formal school system. However, it also emerged that private tuition had its own limitations chief among them being lack of teaching-learning resources. A major shortcoming was that it promotes an inequitable access to education since learners from poor backgrounds can not raise money for private tuition. The study recommends that a legal framework regulating fees charged the use of school facilities and supervision of the teachers involved in this practice be put in place.

KEY WORDS: Private tuition, quality education, access and specialised coaching

 

Title- Promoting Sea-boat Ethics: The Role of Public Examinations in Zimbabwe.

Presentation Type: Oral

Sub-theme: Assessment in Education

Institution: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Curriculum and Arts Education.

Author: Godfrey Museka

Abstract

In Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the world, students are primarily assessed on the basis of their performance in the public examinations they undertake at various levels. Philosophically, public examinations serve to promote a ‘fairer’ selection, based on meritocracy, for entry into higher education and into various forms of employment. This paper, however argues that examination-centred assessment is not only biased and segregatory but also narrow as it promotes urban elitism, mental rigour and aptitude at the expense of other key attributes necessary for school leavers to survive in the wider society. Evidence gathered through interviews and questionnaires show that as a form of assessment public examinations are inadequate as they do not address all the educational domains particularly the affective domain. This encompasses the inculcation of attitudes such as curiosity, inventiveness, persistence as well as dimensions in teamwork skills namely; adaptability, coordination, decision making, interpersonal relations, leadership and communication. Since public examinations focus on specific abilities, they exclude other relevant life-skills. In this regard, this study recommends a holistic approach to assessment in which public examinations together with other forms of assessment, for example, continuous assessment and or Records of Achievement (RoAs) are combined in order to produce students that are all- rounders and can be absorbed by industry and fit into society.

Key words: continuous assessment, records of achievement (RoAs), teamwork skills and affective domain

 

 

 SOUTHERN AFRICA SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, SEPTEMBER, 2011

 

Great Zimbabwe, 4 – 6 ND OCT 2012

THEME  Access  Quality and Access in  Education  for Sustainable Development in Southern Africa

Sub-Theme : Teacher Education

Title of Paper: Can Teachers be trained  through Open and Distance Learning: Challenges faced by the  Zimbabwe Open University

Cuthbert  Majoni, Zimbabwe Open University, Mashonaland Central Region P. Bag 984, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 263+71+ 7161/7484/7107   Cell 077 2 678 966, cmajoni@gmail.com and

Abstract

This paper will highlight the challenges experienced by the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) in training teachers wholly through Open and Distance Learning (ODL). The Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the only open and distance state university training teachers wholly at a distance. There are ten regional centres geographically spread in the country.    Since 2007, the programme been offered in the ten regions of ZOU.   So far two intakes have completed the training programme. This is  the first time in Zimbabwe for  students to be trained through ODL .The main question is   what are the experiences of these  students in training and what  challenges  ZOU is  facing ,how  is it  coping  with these  challenges what do stakeholders say about the quality of  graduates?

 

 

SOUTHERN AFRICA SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, SEPTEMBER, 2011

 THEME   Access  Quality and Access in  Education  for Sustainable Development in Southern Africa

Sub-Theme :  Education and Heritage

Title of Paper: Can Teachers be trained  through Open and Distance Learning: Challenges faced by the  Zimbabwe Open University

Cuthbert  Majoni, Zimbabwe Open University, Mashonaland Central Region P. Bag 984, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 263+71+ 7161/7484/7107   Cell 077 2 678 966, cmajoni@gmail.com and

Abstract

This paper examines the relevance  of traditional African education and argues that the present day teaching and learning can be made more exciting and relevant if educational practice integrates African traditional approaches with the more modern European methods in the teaching of young children at primary school in Zimbabwe.. In this paper we take Scanlan’s 1964 position that education of the young before the advent of the European was an education that prepared him for his responsibilities as an adult in his home, village and tribe. While western education has it virtues in honing specialist skills in people, its relegation of African traditional education and heritage to backward practice leaves a vacuum which,  is filled  with confusion, loss of identity and total breakdown in integrational communication.  It is our position in this paper that taking a relook at our traditional knowledge dissemination systems like communal education, group learning, fireside folktales and legends  how they are used today in the education sector in Zimbabwe. Are these approaches being  looked down upon or denigrated  or applied in  our primary schools.

 

 

 

 

Name:              Kudzayiishe Mudzingwa

Affiliation:      Faculty of Education, Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe.

Mailing address:          Great Zimbabwe University, P.O.Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

E-mail address:          kumudzingwa@gmail.com

IDEALISM VERSUS REALISM: PERCEPTIONS UNDERLYING THE EXPECTATIONS AND CHALLENGES FACING BEGINNING TEACHERS IN THREE DISTRICTS OF MASVINGO PROVINCE, ZIMBABWE

ABSTRACT:  The study examined the perceptions of beginning teachers regarding the expectations and challenges that they encounter during the first year of entry into the profession. The first year represents a transition that is characterised by discordance between the idealistic expectations that new teachers bring into the profession and the contextual realities that exist within the school.  The mismatch impacts upon the behaviour and attitudes of new teachers and affects their capacity to adjust to the school setting. A sample of 24 new teachers who had completed a pre-service teacher training programme was used in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics. The study established that participants’ perceptions about their expectations in the profession were at variance with the challenges prevalent within the real school setting. The study recommended that interventions be applied to socialise new teachers and enable them to settle down and work effectively.

Key words: beginning teachers, perceptions, expectations, challenges, interventions.

 

 

 

 

Naude Francois

DIFFERENTIATED AND CAREER DIRECTED EDUCATION  –  A MEANS TO IMPROVE THE TEACHING / LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS IN SCHOOLS

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

The discontinuation of higher grade (HG) and standard grade (SG) subjects  resulted in the abolishment of HG and SG subject choice opportunities for learners.  This effected the subject combination possibilities of learners.  One of the effects was the introduction of Mathematical Literacy for learners, not equipped enough to cope with Mathematics as such. The same phenomena was evident in other subjects such as Accounting where learners opted for “easier” subjects such as “learning subjects” because of problems coping with the subject in its “original format”.  This can be seen as a contributing factor leading to “inferior” subject choices and limited career opportunities.

 

This paper should be seen as an outcry to introduce a system of differentiated teaching which can alleviate stress among learners, resulting from unmanageable academic pressure, and which can improve social adjustment and ensure optimal personal development of learners through academic success.

 

Method: From findings of other researchers in this field, own provisional and informal research and experience, it became clear that not enough is done to prepare learners for life after school while effective school guidance and counseling programmes in schools facilitate students’ development in educational, personal, social and career domains. Differentiated and career directed education should therefore be further researched  as a possible way to improve the teaching / learning process.Teachers should ask themselves whether they are doing what they should do to improve the overall academic performance in schools.

 

Results It seems that , although career planning should receive attention in the Life Orientation programme, the ineffectiveness in this regard raises many questions. An objective evaluation of this programme and its value should be further  researched.

 

Conclusion:  The ultimate goal of teaching cannot be a school leaving or equivalent certificate.  Schooling should serve as preparation for life after school and for a future career.  The role that differentiated and career directed teaching can play to give direction and add value to the teaching / learning process in schools can eventually lead to a more effective academic

 

 

 

Modern Teacher Education and the Question of Paradigms

Contributors:

 

            Mr BT Gamede

            University of Zululand

Private Bag X 1001

KwaDlangezwa

3886

e-mail:  bgamede@pan.uzulu.ac.za

Mr HZM Jamile

            University of Zululand

Private Bag X 1001

KwaDlangezwa

3886

            e-mail:  hjamile@pan.uzulu.ac.za

Mr BB Ndlovu

            University of Zululand

Private Bag X 1001

KwaDlangezwa

3886

            e-mail:  bndlovu@pan.uzulu.ac.za

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The purpose of this discourse is to engage educationists and educationalists on issues of preparing student-teachers for future engagements as practitioners of the teaching profession.  This is a matter of determining the nature and composition of teacher education curricula.

 

Education is a social science and as such it seeks to address human needs as are determined by circumstances which change with the passage of time.  In order to remain relevant, therefore, education needs to adapt.  It is the nature of these changes, which are concomitant with adaptation, that this paper is concerned with in so far as they affect teacher-education curricula.

 

The key question is:  Should universities focus mainly on principles of teaching and learning (Didactics) or on theoretical frameworks that underpin educational policies of the time?

 

 

 

 

Universitary Orientation and Pedagogical Supervision

(Pedagogical Advisor role in Organic Units)

Alberto Julião Macamo, Msc (macamo.alberto@uem.mz)

Eduardo Mondlane University-Maputo – Mozambique

Abstract

 

The study aimed to characterize and evaluate the different performances of the pedagogical faculty supervisors in order to contribute in improving the quality of e-learning and the promotion of inclusive education. Assumes the roles of pedagogue supervisor within the University institution, also identifying the main areas of action of the Pedagogical Advisor and supervisor in the organic unity (College, School or Centre), having as main focus the scope and purpose of guiding and supervisory function within the University. To what extent the different performances are approaching theoretical models of supervision and teaching quality assurance

 

“O estudo visa caracterizar e avaliar as diferentes actuações de supervisores pedagógicos nas unidades orgânicas a fim de contribuir na melhoria da qualidade de e-aprendizagem e na promoção da educação inclusiva. Pressupõe a verificação das funções do pedagogo supervisor dentro da instituição universitária, também identificação das principais áreas de actuação do orientador e supervisor pedagógico na unidade orgânica (Faculdade, Escola ou Centro), tendo como enfoque principal a abrangência e objecto da função orientadora e supervisora dentro da universidade. Em que medida as diferentes actuações se aproximam de modelos teóricos de supervisão e garantia da qualidade de ensino”.

 

Methodological Alternatives in technical education in the subject: Acid – Base.

Tatiana Kuleshov andGonçalves, EzequielGuindaJúnior

Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of de Science, Department of Chemistry, MAPUTO, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a research theme: Methodological Alternatives in technical education in the subject: Acid – Base. The overall objective of this work is: To study themethodological alternatives that can be used in technical education duringteaching theme “Acid – base.” The work was used in subsequent experiments in educational inCommercial Institute of Maputo and performing chemistry experiments in the classroomwith the use of local materials.
Throughout the paper the methodological orientation to teach the subject Acid -Base
For pedagogical experiments have been used successfully teaching two classesapproached the previous quarter. One of the classes was used as the experimentalclass (where they were used teaching materials- posters and carried out chemicalexperiments) and the other as the control group (where no signs were used and notcarried out chemical experiments). After the teaching experiment, it was found that theexperimental group the percentage of the pedagogical use was higher than inthecontrol group where there was a lower percentage.

Keywords: local material, learning, chemical experiments, students.

 

Methodological Alternatives in technical education in the subject: Acid – Base.

Tatiana Kuleshov andGonçalves, EzequielGuindaJúnior

Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of de Science, Department of Chemistry, MAPUTO, Mozambique

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a research theme: Methodological Alternatives in technical education in the subject: Acid – Base. The overall objective of this work is: To study themethodological alternatives that can be used in technical education duringteaching theme “Acid – base.” The work was used in subsequent experiments in educational inCommercial Institute of Maputo and performing chemistry experiments in the classroomwith the use of local materials.
Throughout the paper the methodological orientation to teach the subject Acid -Base
For pedagogical experiments have been used successfully teaching two classesapproached the previous quarter. One of the classes was used as the experimentalclass (where they were used teaching materials- posters and carried out chemicalexperiments) and the other as the control group (where no signs were used and notcarried out chemical experiments). After the teaching experiment, it was found that theexperimental group the percentage of the pedagogical use was higher than inthecontrol group where there was a lower percentage.

Keywords: local material, learning, chemical experiments, students.

 

 

 

 

TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE ASSESSMENT STRUCTURE OF THE O’LEVEL HISTORY  SYLLABUS [2167] IN ZIMBABWE: A CASE STUDY OF ZAKA DISTRICT.

By

Mapetere  Kudakwashe; Great Zimbabwe University,email,mapeterek@gmail.com,

Makaye  Jeriphanos; Great Zimbabwe University,email,jmakaye2000@yahoo.com and

Muguti Tasara; Great Zimbabwe University,email,tasara4@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This study examined teachers’ perceptions of the assessment structure the  0’level History Syllabus 2167 examination in Zimbabwe. A descriptive survey approach in which 30 History teachers  from 15 Zaka District  secondary schools responded to a questionnaire was used. Quantitative and qualitative paradigms of data presentation were both useful in this project. Findings from the study revealed that assessment and teaching History are two sides of the same coin but dropping the Source Based Question to an option was considered to be throwing away the baby with bath water. Most teachers are no longer teaching Source Based Questions and critical higher order skills are no longer developed in History students. The essay question with its tri -segmented structure gives prominence to factual regurgitation. This study led to the conclusion that the removal of the Source Based Question from the compulsory status has prevented History students from developing genuine higher order skills in Zimbabwe. It is recommended therefore that syllabus 2166 be revisited with an aim of merging it with syllabus 2167 in order to resuscitate the development of higher order skills of analysis ,inference and evaluation among History students.

Key Words:  Perceptions,” Knowledge that”,” Knowledge how” New History.

 

 

 

 

 

NATIONAL AND STRATEGIC STUDIES AT TEACHERS TRAINING COLLEGES IN ZIMBABWE, A BRAND OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION: STUDENTS’ AND LECTURERS` PERCEPTIONS

By

Mapetere Kudakwashe, email, mapeterek@gmail.com

Magudu ,S email srmagudu@yahoo.com.au

Chinembiri Cecilia, email.chinembiri.cecilia9@gmail

 

ABSTRACT

 

This study investigated perceptions of students and lecturers on the teaching of National And Strategic Studies [NASS] in  six Teachers’ Training Colleges in Zimbabwe. The descriptive survey approach was used to gather data from two secondary school teachers training colleges and four primary school teachers training colleges.15 lecturers and 144 students responded to questionnaires and 1 critical person in the introduction of NASS was interviewed. A historical approach of documentary study was also done. The study established that there is general acceptance of NASS and its value to nation building and the moulding of responsible citizens. However, there is a significant minority of about 30{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6} of the research participants who view NASS as political manoeuvring. Basing on the findings of the study, it is recommended that there be a more rigorous coordination of NASS teaching in all institutions of Higher learning. It is also necessary to have continuous and consistent syllabus review to accommodate current developments of national significance.

KEY TERMS: Citizenship, Unhu/Ubuntu, Brand

 

 

DETERMINATION OF THE ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY FROM A SIMPLE PENDULUM GRAVITA: BESSEL METHOD

aAlexandre Fernando Dambe
Eduardo Mondlane University, Department of physics, Maputo, Mozambique
(alexandre.dambe @uem.mz)
bAdriano Rafael Sacato
Eduardo Mondlane University, Department of physics, Maputo, Mozambique
(Adrianosacate@uem.mz)
cMarina Y. Kotckareva
Eduardo Mondlane University, Department of physics, Maputo, Mozambique
(Mkotmz@uem.mz)

 

ABSTRACT
It should be noted that the teachers of physics, for the most part, are a series of difficulties in carrying out their teaching tasks. This situation is no different when it comes to determining the acceleration of gravity in high school, where problems and issues seem to challenge the teaching of physics over time. One difficulty is the lack of laboratories in schools, as well as the high cost of instruments, but does not prevent that teachers resort to the local auxiliary resources so they can illustrate their lessons. To do so, was done the construction of a Simple Gravity Pendulum (SGP), which occurred in a way that was possible interactivity with the student’s own instrument, thus allowing it to observe the behavior of a body in different positions in a Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) and the related concepts that describe the phenomenon. In order to produce a simple experiment, using low-cost material, this experience will also provide a more meaningful learning leading the student to realize the limitations of their prior knowledge. For this experiment we applied the method of Bessel, where their advantage lies in the fact that, provide accurate results of the acceleration of gravity, if they are compared with the theoretically known. The values of gravity acceleration ranging from 9.79 to 9.87 m / s2 end the average value of the acceleration of gravity obtained was 9.84 m/s2.

 

 

 

  TOPIC: SEXUAL HARASSMENT AMONG THE ZIMBABWE NATIONAL YOUTH GAMES UNDER 20 FEMALE ATHLETES

                                                                     BY

                                                        Patricia Muchena

patriciamuchena@yahoo.co.uk

Zimbabwe Open University

John Mapfumo

mrmapfumo@gmail.com

Sabbatical Scholar at Zimbabwe Open University, Manicaland

                                                   mrmapfumo@gmail.com

 

Abstract

Most studies have focused on sexual harassment of the girl child in general but not in the sports arena in Zimbabwe. The focus of this study is sexual harassment of the girl child in sport. This study is aimed at establishing the extent of sexual harassment among the female under twenty year’s athletes. A population of nine- hundred female under twenty athletes from the Zimbabwe National Youth Games participated in the tournament. One hundred and twenty participants constituted the sample in this study. For data collection’ a questionnaire was used. The study findings revealed significant incidence of sexual harassment among the female under twenty athletes. Victim female athletes were subjected to unwanted touching, pinching and grabbing of body parts, repeated asking out, and sexual comments about a person’s clothing, anatomy or looks. Most frequent time of harassment was after games or training at the sports centre. Conclusions were that sexual harassment of female under twenty athletes in Zimbabwe are likely to remain a problem for the foreseeable future. It is also likely that whenever the male trainer is in charge of female athletes, he may sexually harass them. It also recommends that schools and sports clubs should  embark on awareness campaigns on sexual harassment and provide counselling services to victims of sexual harassment.

 

 

 

 

Education  policy makers or implementers: who is who in the effective  implementation of education policies? A case for Zimbabwe.

winnet chindedza <winnetchindedza8@gmail.com>

Great Zimbabwe University

At independence in Zimbabwe, new educational policies were made. These policies were made to either cater for the growing number of people who needed education or to go hand in glove with the demands of the economy. So, the new  government saw it fit to make new policies. However, in a bid to raise the educational standards of the new Zimbabwean, a lot of problems were faced in trying to implement the educational policies. The study  looked at policies like Education for All, Education With Production,Sex Education and vocationalisation of the secondary  school curriculum among many others. The  study  established that where there is  no consultation amongst Interested parties ,effective implementation of policies becomes an uphill struggle. Policies like Education with Production and Sex Education died at implementation stage because no thorough consultation was made by police makers. During the study, teachers, District Education Officers, Provincial Education Officers and parents were interviewed. Document analysis was also made use of. The major  finding was  that,  where there is no thorough consultation ,policies  are negatively affected and end up being armchair theories.The study  recommends  that   thorough  consultations be made before  policies are send for implementation  and resources  be provided to ensure effective implementation.

 

 

 

 

Indigenous African Education: A Case for Zimbabwe

                                   By

                        Prof Ben John Siyakwazi

A Visiting Professor at Great Zimbabwe University in the Department of Educational Foundations

 

One of the major problems in Zimbabwe’s system of education is that it inherited a system of education that ignored the African culture. Therefore a topic on indigenous African Education offers an opportunity for arousing and sharpening awareness of our diverse cultural heritage. The paper focuses on Zimbabwe in particular, our national life according to our cultural goals. It is noted that this theme on indigenous African Education has recently captured the attention of many scholars. Their interests and desire is to know more about the nature of education in pr-colonial times. Indigenous African Education as conceived in this paper encompasses a broad range of activities such as incidental and deliberate learning. Whilst the education system in different societies differs in organization and content, their purpose is to transmit knowledge and skills to the young in either formal or informal setting. In this paper, schooling among the Lemba people of Mberengwa, characteristic of indigenous education and an analysis of the impact of West on Zimbabwe will be examined.

 

 

 

Readiness of Great Zimbabwe University for eLearning by 2012

Viola Machingura

University Teaching and Learning Centre

Great Zimbabwe University

Masvingo, Zimbabwe

ABSTRACT

Great Zimbabwe University is uniquely placed and poised to be the biggest university in Zimbabwe spanning three campuses in Masvingo. The university however, faces a number of challenges such as the limited infrastructural space and limited Government funding. This has however not deterred the university from going on with its developmental plans as stipulated in the Five Year Strategic Plan of 2008-2013.In 2011, the university set up the Teaching and Learning Centre as part of that strategic plan, to spearhead a drive to maintain high standards of teaching and learning at the university. As part of its initiatives, the TLC came up with the idea of an eLearning programme that should see the university address some of its challenges through the effective and efficient utilization of resources to reach students both at its planned multiple sites as well as beyond. This paper looks GZU’s readiness this phenomenon that has taken not only the country by storm, but also the African continent as a whole.

 

 

 

Gunhu, M. Rwatirera Email:rmgunhu@gzu.ac.zw

And

Nyota, Shumirai Email: snyota@gzu.ac.zw

Unpacking the value of indigenous vegetables: Consequences of poor dietary diversification within the vegetable group on vitamin A intake, in Masvingo Urban.

Vitamin A needs increase significantly during rapid growth periods and in illness were the demand for cell differentiation is high. For most poor communities that subsist mainly on cereal and green vegetable diets vitamin A deficiency is a health problem. Meanwhile, research studies have shown that a number of indigenous vegetables such as amarathus, black jack and cassava leaves as well as coloured vegetables such as carrots are good sources of vitamin A. The study used dietary history and food frequency questionnaires to gather data on the consumption patterns of participating households, in terms dietary diversification within the vegetable group. Food tables were subsequently used to check the contribution of vegetables to the total vitamin A intakes. The study establish that the majority of the participating households (80{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}) used five types of vegetables in the last five months preceding the study. The use of indigenous vegetables was reportedly higher among older people than among children.  Data from vegetable vendors also, showed that the regular customers for indigenous vegetables were generally older. Subsequently, the study recommended educational campaigns aimed at changing the perceptions of younger people on the value of vegetables in addressing vitamin A deficiencies.

 

 

 

 

Nyota, Shumirai Email: snyota@gzu.ac.zw

And

Gunhu,M. Rwatirera Email:rmgunhu@gzu.ac.zw

 

Gondo, K. T. E-mail: ktgondo@yahoo.com

 

 

Challenges facing the existence of traditional vegetable species: An analysis

 

In order to be able to meaningfully inform and re-orientate food security interventions, the role of research on food security evaluation may not be overemphasized. This paper sought to examine the impact of changing eating patterns, research and NGO interventions on the sustainability of traditional vegetables. Data were gathered through interviews with the elderly and community leaders as well as from participants of NGO initiated food security programmes.  The study found that the consumption of indegeous vegetables had declined sharply and more so, they were less popular with the younger generation. Data gathered through observations also showed that all the participating farmers opted for high yield vegetables at the expense of traditional vegetables. Out of the four NGO initiated projects, none of them supported the production of traditional vegetables. In addition, the study noted that the local agricultural extension officers supported cereal production and high yield exotic vegetables. The sustainability of indigenous vegetables was also affected by continued soil degradation due to overgrazing and over cultivation. As a result of the poor promotion of indigenous vegetables data from interviews with some of the elderly participants showed that some vegetable species had disappeared from their community. The study recommends increased research and education on the importance of traditional vegetables on dietary diversification within the food group.

 

 

 

 

 

SOUTHERN AFRICAN SOCIETY FOR EDUCATION

 

39th Annual International Conference of SASE: 4-6 October 2012: Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe.

THEME: Access, quality and equity in education for sustainable development in Southern Africa

Paper Sub/Themes:  Education policy /Inclusive Education

TITLE: Academic Development and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning interface: the case of South African Universities

by

*Alfred H. Makura and *Noluthando Toni (*University of Fort Hare)

Abstract

 

The link between Academic Development (AD) and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) in the South African Higher education quality context is as blurred as the conceptualisation of the terms.   Academic development is a relatively ‘young’ discipline. It has come into being due to a wide variety of education pressures and needs locally and worldwide. Currently in South Africa, there appears to be no unified understanding of the purpose, role and practices among Academic Development practitioners. As such, AD practices are still quite ‘ad hoc’ and needs-driven to the extent that even in one institution, there are possible differences in how the practitioners conceptualise their roles and practices as data herein will show. Using two South Africa Universities and the ‘Best Practices’ frame of reference, this paper attempts to reveal the assumptions and perceptions that underline AD practitioners’ understanding of their roles which ultimately shape their (scholarship of) teaching and learning practices. The intention is to establish if respective AD models and practices impact significantly on teaching and learning within respective institutions. Twenty purposively selected AD practitioners responded to a (survey) questionnaire that sought to unravel these assumptions and perceptions. Data was quantitatively analysed to see if any trends could be discerned. Recommendations and implications on higher education quality and access, and teaching and learning policy are discussed within the context of the results.

 

Key terms: Academic development, University, Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), survey, perceptions, questionnaire, South Africa

 

*All correspondence and requests to

Dr. Alfred H. Makura

University of Fort Hare

Alice Campus: Teaching and Learning Centre

P. Bag X1314,

Alice 5700

South Africa

amakura@ufh.ac.za

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE INFLUENCE OF GENDERED CULTURAL CODES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
OF FEMALE STUDENTS AT A
UNIVERSITY IN MASVINGO PROVINCE, ZIMBABWE
Lilian Manwa
Great Zimbabwe University
E-mail: lilianmanwa@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study will be to investigate the influence of gendered
cultural codes on the academic performance of female students at
university in Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe
The focus of this study is mainly on the forms of gendered cultural
codes in Zimbabwe, their influence on academic performance and then
possible solutions to the negative effects. A case study design will
be chosen for the study because the study of culture, gender and
academic performance is ethnographic in nature hence the suitability
of the design. A sample of about forty five female students will be
conveniently sampled from a population of all female students at the
institution. About twelve lecturers will be purposefully sampled from
all the lecturers who teach the students. In-depth interviews,
document analysis and open ended questionnaires will be the tools used
to collect data. Data will be analysed in narrative form and
thematically. Descriptive formats will be applied where data should be
summarised. This study is intended to benefit both the female
university students and lecturers since the unveiled information will
be useful when assessing students’ work and hopefully to the advantage
of the female student at all levels. Educationists may be enlightened
on the plight of women with regards to gendered cultural codes since
the results may be added literature to the area of social psychology.

 

 

 

 

 

The Impact of Funding Strategies on the Teaching and Learning of Home Economics and Physical Education in

Masvingo Primary Schools.

 

Abstract

 

The study examined the effects of funding strategies on the teaching and learning of practical subjects in rural and urban schools in Zimbabwean Primary Schools with special reference to Home Economics (H. E.) and Physical Education (P. E.). A qualitative paradigm and the descriptive survey method were adopted. The qualitative paradigm was selected because the issue under study yields soft data. A descriptive survey was suitable for a relative large sample. In-depth interviews and open-ended questionnaires were used as data collection instruments. The sample comprised of six (6) school heads and thirty-six (36) H.E. and P.E. teachers purposefully selected from a population of thirteen (13) urban and rural primary schools with a total of one thousand (1000) pupils. Collected data were presented in narrative forms and qualitatively analysed in line with research objectives. The research findings indicated that practical subjects were under funded due to inadequate funding systems and this affected teaching and learning. The study recommended that the government introduce a separate pool of funds for practical subjects to ensure proper channeling of resources and also increase the number of funding systems. Parents and Non-Governmental organizations should be given a platform to be actively involved in issues pertaining the funding of practical subjects.

 

 

Jenet Mudekunye

Great Zimbabwe University

Teacher Development Department.

E-mail : jenetmudekunye@gmail.com.

The interface of verbal and non-verbal communication modes at funeral mimieu: A case of the Shona people of Zimbabwe

Jabulani Moyo: Great Zimbabwe University, E-mail: jabumoyo2012@gmail.com

Shumirai Nyota: Great Zimbabwe University, E-mail: shumirai.nyota@gmail.com

 

Abstract

This study analyses the range of meaning that stem from verbal and nonverbal communication modes at Shona funeral contexts in Zimbabwe. The study acknowledges that verbal and nonverbal communication modes symbiotically relate to create the mood of a funeral while, at times verbal messages conflict with the nonverbal cues. The study recognises the Shona people fear death to a point where death spectres induce helplessness among the kins of the deceased. The study also recognises that funerals providers have capitalised upon death’s enigma to commercialise funerals. The research used content analysis of selected funeral songs and “speeches”, participant observation of actual funeral contexts as well as interviews of funeral attendees, affected people and agents of funeral houses. The study acknowledges that death has fossilized the mystic nature surrounding the Shona people’s conceptualization of this inevitable and final destiny of every living creature.

 

TLC Consultant
Teaching and Learning Centre
University of Fort Hare
East London Campus
Tel: 043 704 7140
Cell: 0781843795
E-mail: rmakombe@ufh.ac.za<mailto:HYPERLINK “https://mail.google.com/mail/h/87hu0anwksnc/?&v=b&cs=wh&to=rmakombe@ufh.ac.za”rmakombe@ufh.ac.za>

ABSTRACT Dr. Rodwell Makombe
The Subaltern Speaks: Gender and Historiography in Sindiwe Magona’s To My Children’s Children

Sindiwe Magona is one of the most prolific writers that South Africa has produced in recent years. Her work is mainly preoccupied with the experiences of marginalised groups in South Africa. Formerly a housemaid in white kitchens and a door-to-door vendor, Magona writes from a vast wealth of first hand experiences. In this paper, I draw insights from subaltern studies, particularly the concept of subalternity and testimonio to examine Magona’s representation of the marginalised in her first novel, To My Children’s Children (1990). The study also borrows from the memory industry that has emerged in South Africa since the Truth and Reconciliation Commission which sought to open a discursive space for marginalised narratives. The Subaltern Studies Group has argued that historiography, especially in Third World countries tends to be biased towards the elite, and to relegate subaltern experiences, particularly those of women and children, to the periphery of history. It is the view of this article that Magona’s autobiography is not only a folk-narrative or an ordinary tale told by a grandmother to her grandchildren but also a serious attempt to historicise subaltern experiences for purposes of locating and/or positioning them within South African historiography. The history of the ‘elite,’ championed by colonialist and nationalist historiography, is by and large the history of whites and a few black men while, on the other hand, the ‘subaltern’ refers, largely, to black women and children. Within the context of this article, To My Children’s Children is conceptualised as a testimonio of the marginalised (in the order of the Spanish Latin American testimonio) in that it seeks to recover the lives of ordinary people submerged and written off by apartheid. To tell one’s own story is not only to find voice and space in discourse (agency) but also to have an opportunity to straighten historical records for the sake of posterity

 

 

Topic: The Place of Free Play in the Early Childhood Development Curriculum: A Case Study of ECD Classes Attached to Primary Schools in Masvingo Urban.

Lekani Dube

Lecturer – Early Childhood Development

Department of Educational Foundations

Great Zimbabwe University

P.O.Box 1235

Masvingo

Mobile No. 263-773 891 903

e-mail address: lekanidube@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT

In most parts of the world many early childhood practitioners recognise the importance of free play for children’s development and emphasize play in their classrooms. This study explored the significance attached to free play activity in the early childhood development curriculum by primary schools in Masvingo urban. The study sought to establish whether free play activity is given its prominent position in the teaching and learning of young children. In terms of methodology, a qualitative research design in the form of a case study was employed because this would yield relevant data. The study sample comprised of 20 school administrators, 10 early childhood development practitioners and 50 parents who were purposively sampled. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the 10 ECD practitioners in all the schools, and a questionnaire was administered to 50 parents and 20 school administrators. In addition, documentary analysis was found appropriate in helping to define the expectations of the Ministry of Education, Sport, Arts and Culture in terms of the early childhood development curriculum. From a detailed analysis and discussion of results, several findings were drawn. The study found out that there were inconsistencies and inadequacies in the manner in which free play is conceptualised and implemented in the different schools studied. In some schools resources for play were readily available whilst in others these were very inadequate and the time allocated to free play activity was minimal.

 

 

EXPLORING THE ADEQUACY OF THE ‘SIAS’ STRATEGY IN ADDRESSING THE NEEDS OF MARGINALISED LEARNERS IN THE NORTH-WEST DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Presenters:  Mr S.M Mampe (moshweu.mampe@nwu.ac.za) Cell: +27 (0) 829 767 629 

                     Prof JR Debeila (20991908@nwu.ac.za) Cell: +27 (0)721 964 014

                     Mr AL Bechuke (22037977@nwu.ac.za) Cell: +27 (0)788 263 695

                     North-West University (South Africa)   Tel: +27 (0)189 389 2500

ABSTRACT

The National Strategy on Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support (SIAS), as part of the White Paper 6 (2001) emphasizes that an Inclusive Education and Training strategy is designed and aimed at responding to the needs of all learners in South Africa, especially those who are vulnerable and most likely to be marginalised and excluded by mainstream educators. However, the success and adequacy of the newly introduced strategy emerged as a critical issue because it has not been evaluated in practice. The purpose of this paper is to present the views of the mainstream teachers regarding the success and the adequacy of the new strategy and to present a collaborative model aimed at enhancing the success and the adequacy of the SIAS strategy in the North-West Province Department of Education.

Using a qualitative research paradigm, the researchers focused on five mainstream primary schools which were purposefully sampled from 46 mainstream primary schools. From this sample, one LSEN teacher teaching in Grade 4 was purposefully chosen per school. Also, two Grade 4 learners with barriers to learning were purposefully chosen per school. To enhance an understanding of the research problem, one participant was purposefully selected from each one of the following groups: District Education Specialist; Special School Teachers; Institutional-Level Support Team members, and District-Based Support Team members. Full-Service School staff were excluded because Full-Service Schools are not functional in the North-West Department of Education. Data were collected by means of interviews, questionnaires, observations coupled with reflective journals, tape recorder and document analysis. TODA was used for data analysis.

The findings revealed that the implementation procedure of the ‘SIAS’ strategy in addressing the needs of marginalised learners in the North-West Department of Education is not adequate. Thus, support for learners with barriers to learning was not adequately provided. Secondly, mentoring and support emerged as a critical professional attribute that exemplify the interaction and support practices in the curriculum which the staff from Special Schools and District Education Specialists should display. Based on these findings, the researchers recommended the use of a collaborative, multidimensional model for the effective implementation of the ‘SIAS’ strategy.

Keywords: Adequacy, ‘SIAS’ Strategy, Marginalised learners and Collaborative Multi-dimensional Model

 

 

 

EXPLORING THE AVAILABILITY, ACCESSIBILITY AND ADEQUACY OF THE NATIONAL STUDENTS FINANCIAL AID SCHEME: A CASE STUDY AT NORTH-WEST UNIVERSITY (SOUTH AFRICA)

Presenters: Prof JR Debeila (20991908@nwu.ac.za) Cell: +27 (0)721 964 014

                    Mr AL Bechuke (22037977@nwu.ac.za) Cell: +27 (0)788 263 695

                   Mr M S Mampe (moshweu.mampe@nwu.ac.za) Cell: +27(0) 829767629

                   North-West University (South Africa)   Tel: +27 (0)189 389 2500

ABSTRACT

In current years research findings revealed that the provision of education and training to all citizens is fundamental to the success of any government’s overall strategy. For this to happen, strategic plans are being evolved to make scholarship available to needy students. This is a worldwide phenomenon. In South Africa, the National Student Financial Aid Scheme (NSFAS)is seen as one such program utilized to assist disadvantaged students through their tertiary education. However, very few studies have been conducted on the availability, accessibility and adequacy of such programs or funds.

This report presents the findings of a quantitative research project that was conducted among randomly selected NSFAS Loan Holders at North-West University of (Mafikeng Campus).

The Dean of Students Affairs provided support for the study, and a total of 83 students were randomly selected from a list of current loan recipients at NWU. The sample frame was obtained from the Student Academic Services. The existing AMA Student Loans Questionnaire was utilized in the survey.

Cross-tabulations were performed on several variables to assess whether or not there were relationships between them. A Chi-square test was subsequently applied to see if any of the relationships were statistically significant.

Among the recommendations for improving availability, accessibility and/ or adequacy as well as marketing awareness of NSFAS 26 (26.5{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}) respondents stated that NSFAS should improve Secondary School Awareness of the NSFAS funding available, that it might “offer needy individuals who previously believed they had no future and opportunity to improve their fees. A further 6 (7.2{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}) respondents indicated that NSFAS should advertise their financial aid more on University Campus. Two (2.4{30b6a3f6cd7cd50c224e6d598cecff3daaebcfad3c0f48ea35930446b21c33a6}) respondents stated that NSFAS should also provide financial assistance in transport and accommodation, recreational activities.

Keywords

Availability, Accessibility, Adequacy, and National Students Financial Aid Scheme

 

 

 

AN ANALYSIS OF TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THE CAUSES OF DEPRESSED ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT BY CANDIDATES IN ‘A’ LEVEL SHONA EXAMINATIONS

 

Authors; B, Mudzanire

Great Zimbabwe University

Department of Curriculum Studies

PO Box1235

Masvingo

bmudzanire@yahoo.co.uk

M, Mazuruse

Great Zimbabwe University

Department of Curriculum Studies

PO Box1235

Masvingo

 

ABSTRACT

The study set out to obtain ‘A’ level teachers’ perceptions on the causes of the current depressed performance by Shona candidates in the ‘A’ level public examinations. A total of 24/30 ‘A’ Level Shona teachers in Zaka District responded to a 15 item questionnaire that sought their reflections on the issue. Teachers’ views were corroborated with the ‘A’ level chief examiners’ reports. It was found that, although most teachers are ‘qualified’ to teach ‘A’ level Shona, very few of them are aware of the required examination techniques. A case for in-service workshops for ‘A’ level Shona teachers as well as reviewal and synchronisation of the universities Shona syllabuses to meet ‘A’ level requirements, inter-alia, is strongly recommended.

 

 

 

 

 

Educational change and teacher identity: Experiences of FET college lecturers in the post apartheid era 

 

 

Researcher: Zanele Buthelezi

University of KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa

Postal address: P.O Box 100382, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa

Tel: (27) 33 260 6274             Mobile: (27) 82 502 3624

Fax: 0866 9826 79

E mail: butheleziz@ukzn.ac.za

 

The Further Education and Training (FET) college sector in South Africa has undergone major institutional, structural and curricular changes over the last twelve years. Drawing on Norbert Elias’ social theory, the study worked within a qualitative research approach and used oral history interviews to explore FET college lecturers’ perceptions of their identity.

 

The investigation included finding out where the FET lecturers place themselves within the education system and what they identify themselves as in relation to their qualifications, their previous occupations and their current role as lecturers in FET colleges. Findings reveal that work context, educational landscape and national educational policies have had an impact in the development of FET college lecturer identity.

 

Keywords:   educational change; teacher identity; narrative enquiry; vocational education and training

 

 

 

Indigenous Knowledge Systems

Using Indigenous Knowledge Systems to enhance the teaching of science and technology subjects

Maria Tsvere, Chinhoyi University of Technology,

maria.tevere@gmail.com, maria.tsvere@gamail.com

Constantino Pedzisai, Chinhoyi University of Technology,

cpedzisai@cut.ac.zw, pedzisaic@gmail.com

Varaidzo Chinokwetu, Chinhoyi University of Technology,

vchinokwetu@cut.ac.zwv varaidzzochm@gmail.com

Abstract

Indigenous technologies still exist though now very rarely among African people which consist of scientific processes and techniques or reactions that can be recommended for use in teaching science and technology subjects to African children. When people migrate from rural to urban areas, they often leave valuable knowledge (Gagliardi, 1995) which is why school SMT is largely divorced from everyday experiences, resulting in it being perceived as challenging to learners in Zimbabwe. Theory state that learning is enhanced when new knowledge is related to what learners already know (Cobern ,1996) as concepts are first understood in mother tongue and cultural orientation of learners then translated into foreign orientations such as English. For a concept or theory to be declared understood, it must be understood in the same manner the scientist or theorist who proposed it understands it. If a concept or a theory thus given a title as that proposed by the scientist is slightly different from how the scientist proposed it, then such a concept becomes a misconception Moji, (1998). This paper reports on the exploratory survey that explored the technologies that can be used in teaching science and technology subjects and identifies concepts that they can be explained by the indigenous technology.  Data was collected from a sample of 30 bachelors of education technology education students. Information was analysed qualitatively and thematically. Findings show that indigenous knowledge systems contain technologies that are useful in unpacking scientific and technological concepts which make teaching of ST much easier. Whiles scientists view the world as irrational and impersonal demanding empirical evidence, African thought view the world as rational and metaphysical. The paper recommends that scientific thought should accommodate and African thought as complementary cosmologies in Science and Technology education as each has its in knowledge base. More research on IKS should be done by universities and findings are documented, standardized and shared even using new technologies such as the internet for sustainable development in African countries.

Key words: Indigenous knowledge, Science and Technology, Concepts, teaching, complementary cosmologies.

 

 

 

 

NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF SOYABEANS: A GUIDE FOR SUGARCANE GROWERS UNDER FAST TRACK LAND REFORM PROGRAMME [FTLRP] IN ZIMBABWE

Shoko MD1* and Zhou M

 

*Corresponding author Email: munashoko@yahoo.co.uk

1Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Great Zimbabwe University, Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

South African Sugarcane Research Institute, Private Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, KwaZulu-Natal 4300, South Africa

 

 

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted on sandy clay loams of the lithosol group under the Zimbabwe soil classification system at The Zimbabwe Sugar Association Experiment Station (Z.S.A.E.S). The objectives of this research were to: analyse the nutrient content of the soyabeans under study, assess the contributions of the various soyabean parts to soil fertility, determine the liming potential of the soyabeans and determine the forage potential of the two soyabeans as livestock feeds. The following parameters were measured: nutrient composition of the soyabeans, biomass and N fixed. Vegetable soybeans (variety S114) and grain soyabeans (variety Storm) were used in this study. Vegetable soybeans had higher N, P and K and grain soybeans had higher Ca and Mg. This therefore shows that vegetable soyabeans may have better soil fertility replenishment potential that grain soyabeans. However grain soyabeans seem to have better liming potential than vegetable soyabeans. As forage Storm can improve the Mg and Ca constituency of livestock and vegetable soybeans can influence highly the P constituency. The crops have acceptable levels of Ca and Mg and this make them have the potential to improve soil pH.

Key words: soil fertility, soyabeans, smallholder farmer.

 

Professor Munashe  D Shoko

Associate Professor – Soil Science and Crop Production

Dean : Faculty of Agricultural Sciences

Great Zimbabwe University

Box 1235

Masvingo

Zimbabwe

Tel:0026339252281

Cell:00263772144814

 

 

 

Teachers standing up for a principle: Lessons from biographies of two teachers par -excellence-Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (19 June 1917-1 July 1999) and Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917-24 April 1993).

Conference sub-theme: Teacher Education.

[Paper to be presented at the 39th Southern African Society for Education (SASE) Annual Conference hosted in Zimbabwe].

Monde Ndandani-North-West Region SASE Representative-RSA.

Abstract: This paper celebrates two of the role models in the teaching calling – Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (19 June 1917-1 July 1999) and Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917-24 April 1993); Nkomo, being only four months older than Tambo and having passed on  only six years after    O. R. had closed his eyes permanently on the 24th of April 1993 A. D.

Both these towering figures of Southern African History were born and bred in small rural villages – Nkomo, in Bukalanga or Bulilima, now referred to as Semokwe Reserve, Matebeleland South and O. R. in Kantolo village of Eastern Pondoland, the nearest  small rural town being Bizana, the same being the hometown of Nomzamo Winifred Madikizela-Mandela.

Commitment to a principle, so we learn from these two whose first calling was teaching, finds home in modest of characters.  Nkomo taught carpentry at Manyame School in Kezi after he had been a driver.  Tambo, having been expelled from Fort Hare with a B.Sc. degree and his majors being Physics and Mathematics and currently, then, doing University Education Diploma, was unemployed for some months, Callinicos, L. (2004:133) writes of him as having said: “I was prepared to work even as a gardener”.

True to their pronounced principles, Nkomo eulogized at the funeral of Lookout “Mafela” Khalisabantu Vumindaba Masuku in Bulawayo on Saturday 12 April 1986 as follows: “Lookout fought against fascism, oppression, tribalism and corruption.  Any failure to dedicate ourselves to the ideals of Masuku will be a betrayal of him and of all those freedom fighters whose graves are not known.” (http://pambazuka.org/en/category/Zimbabwe/49235), while Tambo, writing in support of the *YL’s resolution to call for the resignation of the Native Representative Council of the early 40’s, declared: “We have tolerated the partnership between “White Oppression” and “Black Treachery” for long enough.  We shall square up accounts with the former in due course; we are dispensing with the latter forthwith”. (Callinicos, 2004:153).

This paper, thus, establishes correlation between a commitment to a principle and the characters of these two teachers par excellence here celebrated..

*YL here refers to African National Congress Youth League.

 

 

 

 

CURRICULUM MANAGEMENT: “DRIVING THE SCHOOL MANAGEMENT TEAM FRANTIC”

Lumadi, Mutendwahothe” Lumadmw@unisa.ac.za

 

ABSTRACT

This study explores factors which impact negatively, on the role of the School Management Team (SMT) that serves as the fulcrum of the curriculum management process. The SMT is compelled to execute its responsibilities in an efficient and effective manner which keeps a delicate balance, between the often-conflicting pressures coming from parents, teachers and the department. Umalusi’s reports in 2010 and 2011 indicated that a major irregularity had occurred in Mpumalanga, where Mathematics and Physical Science papers were leaked which put the credibility of the Grade 12 Examinations results into disrepute. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcribed and thematically categorised. Findings revealed that political ploy, quality of teachers and teachers’ attitudes towards Mathematics and Physical Science drive the SMT frantic at school level.

Key words: Curriculum management, Grade 12, Mathematics and Physical Science

                   School Management Team,  

 

 

 

 

Expedited human mobility during the struggle for land in Zimbabwe: How is education management responding?

 

VitallisChikoko

University of KwaZulu- Natal

Email: chikokov@ukzn.ac.za

ChrispenChiome

Zimbabwe Open University

Email:chrischiom@yahoo.ca

 

The (re)possession in the early 2000s of formerly white-owned farms by many Zimbabweans entailed expedited human mobility from people’s old to new homes. This development became popularly known as ‘fast track’ land redistribution. The project brought with it some level of uncertainty about the future on the part of the new land owners. This saw many families, at least in the first five or so years, having to maintain both homes. As adults moved so did their children, thus triggering the mushrooming of make-shift schools in the farms in question. So how did education management respond to this urgent call? In this paper we report findings from a study on this matter. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to a purposive sample of 32 primary school heads from seven districts inMasvingo province. We also conducted individual interviews with four school heads and three provincial education officials. Findings reveal that against many constraints, every resettlement area has a ‘functioning’primary school. However, these schools suffer a plethora of challenges. Physical structures are often dilapidated. Supervision by education officials ranges from minimal to non-existent. Staff turnover is generally very high. Resource bases are very thin. We argue that the ‘fast-track’ land redistribution project has given birth to an unprecedented education management challenge requiring much more creative ways of addressing it than what has been achieved so far.

 

Abstract submission: Southern Africa Society for Educators (SASE) Conference 2012

 

Full name of author: Hardlife Zinhiva [Lecturer of Geography & Environmental Science]

Co-authors: Emma Mandishona [Geography High School Teacher)

Institution: Great Zimbabwe University

E-mail addresses: hzinhiva@gzu.ac.zw or hzinhiva@gmail.com

Consent Statement: I, Hardlife Zinhiva, hereby acknowledge that, to the best of my knowledge, this work has not been published (in full or in part) anywhere.

 

Topic:  Swamps On The Townscape – Resources Or Wastelands: The Case Of Masvingo City

 

Abstract

Urban residents, unlike their rural counterparts, have successfully moved away from directly surviving from the natural environment. Controversy reigns supreme over perceptions among urban communities on whether the environmentally sensitive swamps are resources or wastelands. The study sought to assess the environmental benefits and costs of swamps occurring on the townscape and propose strategies to sustainably manage these wetland ecosystems. Interviews with 6 key informants, responses from a questionnaire administered to 240 urban residents and direct field observations coupled with photography, yielded vital primary data. The study observed that high density suburbs’ residents interacted more directly and significantly with swamps than does the low density suburbs’ residents. It is the study’s findings that swamps yield vital ecological and socio-economic functions and services to urban communities. On the contrary, swamps pose some challenges to urban development too. Swamps have fertile hydrophytic soils for urban cultivation, longer moisture regimes to ensure dry season river flows, discharge and recharge groundwater resources, provide essential open-water habitats for biodiversity thereby creating beautiful scenery, regulate micro-urban climate and river flows, sediment and toxicant reduction among other ecological services to residents. The residents and city authorities were wary of the following environmental costs of swamps; breeding grounds for disease causing pests, high costs of erecting structures including carrying out full environmental impact assessments, obstructing free movements and form open spaces often utilised for illegal solid waste dumping resulting in pollution. Sustainable management of wetland resources by city authorities, ministries and their agencies through comprehensive environmental acts and regulatory bylaws is attainable and the best practice in restoration of wetland integrity. However, continuous monitoring is required to ensure effective implementation and critical review of the legislations to guarantee success of local and national wetland strategies.

 

Key words: townscape, swamp, wetland, wasteland, ecological services, sustainable                             management.

 

 

 

 

Southern Africa Society for Education (SASE) 39th International Conference (Great Zimbabwe University, 4-6 October 2012)

 

Abstract

 

Rethinking Education and Development in Zimbabwe: A Critical Review of the Ideological framework informing Higher Education Planning in Zimbabwe (1980-2012)

James Muzondidya (Ph.D.)

Zimbabwe Institute

The role of education in development cannot be underestimated, especially in the increasingly competitive global economy where countries with powerful knowledge economies like Japan and China are developing a competitive advantage over those without.  Zimbabwe has undoubtedly experienced phenomenal growth in education since independence in 1980, and its secondary school and higher education graduate output ranks among the best in Africa and the world.  This growth is mainly a result of the post-independence government’s policy emphasis on the expansion of educational training institutions, ranging from schools to colleges, universities and polytechnics.  While the growth in education in Zimbabwe cannot be doubted, what is debatable is the quality of the country’s knowledge base and economy.  The critical question that has increasingly come to be asked about Zimbabwe is not about whether the country has enough educational institutions or educated people, but about the appropriateness and developmental value of the country’s education.

Focusing on a review of both the country’s university educational system and the  government’s higher education policy, this paper argues that Zimbabwe has a disarticulated knowledge economy because its planning around higher education has not been sufficiently linked to the developmental needs of the  country. It further argues that the country’s higher educational system/framework has largely remained informed by colonial, Western thinking about education which is delinked to African developmental needs.   Zimbabwe’s knowledge economy has thus continued to be of little relevance to the realities on the ground, and failed to produce professionals and intellectuals whose knowledge adds value to the country’s ever evolving social, economic and political needs.  At the same time, it has not been able to sufficiently complement national initiatives aimed at boosting innovations and development.  The paper’s final argument is that Zimbabwe’s education can only be linked to the developmental needs of the country through a fundamental shift in the ideological framework of higher education planning.  Such a shift involves a major rethinking about both the nature of graduate training and the organization of the training institutions themselves.

 


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